Archive for the ‘biblical prophecy’ Category

Isaiah 53 is a famous Messianic prophecy of Christ in the Bible, hundreds of years before Christ was born His death and the  meaning of what His death accomplished is taught in this chapter.

Yet someone said the following:

God didn’t crush His own Son. At least that’s not whats found in the Septuagint of Isaiah 53:10, which is what the Apostles used.

Septuagint is the Greek translation of the Old Testament.

This individual also said this:

The Apostles couldn’t have used the masoretic text because it didn’t exist yet.

The Masoretic text refers to the Hebrew medieval manuscripts of the Old Testament.

Before answering here’s what the New American Standard Bible says for Isaiah 53:10=

But the Lord was pleased To crush Him, putting Him to grief; If He would render Himself as a guilt offering, He will see His offspring, He will prolong His days, And the good pleasure of the Lord will prosper in His hand.

I think the phrase “the Lord was pleased To crush Him” is part of what Isaiah 53:10 contrary to what the person said in his comment.  Here’s my response:


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Richard Taylor. Interpreting Apocalyptic Literature: An Exegetical Handbook.  Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, July 27th, 2016. 208 pp.

4 out of 5

Purchase: Amazon

This book is part of the Handbooks for Old Testament Exegesis series published by Kregel Publications.  Previously I have enjoyed the work on interpreting Old Testament historical books by Robert Chisholm very much and was looking forward to this volume largely because of it.  I was also excited for this volume since apocalytpic literary forms is one of the hardest to interpret in the Old Testament and as a preacher it would be helpful to think through critically and be equipped in handling passages of Scripture like the book of Daniel.


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David Limbaugh. The Emmaus Code: How Jesus Reveals Himself Through the Scriptures.  Washington D.C: Regnery Publishing, November 9th, 2015.  256 pp.

The subject of this book is on the Messianic prophecies found in the Jewish Scriptures and how it was fulfilled by Jesus Christ.  This book truly surprised me.  The author is a conservative political commentator, author and the younger brother of talk radio host Rush Limbaugh.  Maybe it is because I became somewhat skeptical of talk show hosts writing books on Jesus after my experience of reading Bill O’reilly’ book on “Killing Jesus” (it left a bitter taste in my mouth with how poor the theology was) but when I first picked this book up my expectation was really low.  Again this book surprised me in the sense that it was really well researched and written.  At first I didn’t know what to make of the book’s introduction in which David Limbaugh said he’s has been studying the Bible and its prediction of Jesus for over twenty years.  I wasn’t sure if I could believe him; but after finishing the book I do.  This book was really well done and of an amazing caliber considering that the author is a “layman.”  He write in a way that is informative and winsome.


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Part 3


We’re continuing with our series on a Biblical Theology of Hands.  We’ve seen earlier that Scripture often shows the Hands of the Lord is that it shows He is powerful and punishing of sins.  Now we will see another aspect of the Hands of the Lord.

The hand of the Lord is Protecting

  1. Point: When we look at what the Bible has to say about the Hand of God, we see His Divine Power.
  2. Proof
    1. Exodus from Egypt; remember earlier: “WhenPharaoh does not listen to you, then I will lay My hand on Egypt andbring out My hosts, My people the sons of Israel, from the land of Egypt by great judgments.” (Exodus 7:4)
    2. The Hand of God is capable of Saving: “Behold,the Lord’s hand is not so short That it cannot save; Nor is His ear so dull That it cannot hear.” (Isaiah 59:1)
    3. The Hand of God (Jesus) assures us (Revelation 1:16-18)
    4. Putting the truth together: how can we who have sinful hands face the Hand of God that is powerful, punishing and yet be protecting?
      1. Shadows (Types): Laying of hands and the transferring of sins in the Mosaic Covenant: Exodus 29; especially Leviticus 16:21.
      2. Direct Prophecy: “Piercing” of hands of the Messiah prophecied in Psalm 22:16, Zechariah 12:10, Isaiah 53:5.
      3. Reality: John 20:20, 25, 27.
    5. Assurance of Salvation: “and I give eternal life to them, and they will never perish; and no one will snatch them out of Myhand.” (John 10:28)

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Return of the Kosher Pig , by Tzahi Shapira

Pick up your copy of “Return of the Kosher Pig” over at Amazon

This is a book written by a Jewish Rabbi name Itzhak Shapira who spent years studying rabbinic Jewish texts and came to the conclusion that Jesus is the Messiah.  The main thesis of the book is that within the traditions of Judaism, the Messiah is understood as someone who is more than a mere man; some sources even suggest that the Messiah possesses divine authority.  Throughout the book the author reminds his readers that he is not arguing that everyone within Judaism accepts the idea that the Messiah is more than a man; instead he argues that the belief in the supernatural origin and character of the Messiah has historically been within the bounds of orthodox Judaism and should not be dismissed as a heretical belief.  Along the way the author also argues that the fulfillment of these characteristics of the Messiah has been fulfilled in the person and work of Jesus of Nazareth.

Before we look at the strength and weaknesses of the book, it is important to make a comment about the controversial title of the book.  My initial reaction to the title was whether or not this was design to provoke and offend.  The author makes it clear in the introduction that he’s not out to offend other Jews unnecessarily, and the tone of the rest of the book affirms that.  What Shapira is trying to do is to play on the Hebrew word “return” and “pig,” which share the same Hebrew consonantal roots.  The title of the book also play on the Rabbinic concept that some held that the Messiah will be rejected like a pig as unkoshered, but one day will return and acknowledged as the Messiah.


This book will help Christians become familiar with the development of rabbinic traditions from the time of Jesus onwards.  Throughout the book the author regularly footnotes what certain Hebrew phrases mean and the glossary in the back of 300 Hebrew phrases will prove to be helpful for the Gentile readers.  I also appreciate that in the beginning of the book the author defines and discusses essential facets of rabbinic Judaism over the last two thousand years.

Whether or not you agree with the author, one can appreciate that in the beginning of the book he makes it clear what his theological methods are.  Since Shapira desire for his Jewish audience to come to know Jesus as their Messiah he adopts the Jewish hermeneutical system call PARDES which is the Hebrew acronym for P’Shat, Remez, Drash and SodP’Shat refer to the literal reading of the Scriptures, with the other three moving on from the literal and direct level of the text.  These four interpretative methods are explained in the book and the author makes it known that he will adopt this Rabbinic framework in approaching the question of the Messiah.  Non-Jews will no doubt find it fascinating to learn of the hermeneutical approach of Rabbinic Judaism.  I appreciated also that the author stresses the literal interpretation of the Bible comes first before employing the other three methods.

The book is well documented, with hundreds of footnotes.  I am amazed at how many Jewish sources the author cited.  As a result of reading this book, I was able to do some further research including looking up the portion of the Talmud that talks about the Messiah in Sanhedrin 98a.  It is a plus any time a book helps points the reader to the primary sources for further study.

The best part of the book are the moments the author deal with the literal interpretation of the Jewish Scripture and draw out from it what it teaches concerning the Messiah.  In addition I appreciated the discussion of the evidence for Jesus Christ involving the Stone Messianic references that I first learned about from Gregory Harris’ book The Stone and the Glory.  There are some excellent literal prophecies that were fulfilled by Jesus—and that should move us to worship if we know Him!


At times the book was too speculative in its argumentation.  For instance, the author uses the PARDES method beyond the literal interpretation yielded some strange fruits. Take for example how the author allegorizes the donkey in Zechariah 9:9.  Contextually the Messiah is to ride on according to this passage.  The author took “donkey” to mean “the world” since the Hebrew word for donkey and “substance” share the same root (199).  This commits the exegetical word study fallacy by appealing to etymology.  Then on page 205 the author tells us that bread represents a spark of heaven and is referring to resurrected spirit even though he doesn’t establish his case from the Hebrew Scripture.  This is followed by page 206 that tells us “that the feminine manifestation of God represents the part of that God that we can see and remain alive” (206).  The Bible never indicates God’s revelation to us is His feminine manifestation.  I also wasn’t too thrill about the counting of the numerical value of certain Hebrew words to show the value was equal to another Hebrew word; we never see this kind of hermeneutical ploy used by anyone in the Bible to make sense of the Jewish Scripture.  Again, as I said earlier it is way too speculative.  A book full of these interpretative gymnastic is distracting; I think it would have served the cause better and have the case stronger if the authors just stuck to the literal interpretation and the collobration of those interpretation from Jewish rabbinic sources.

At times the author could have done a better job explaining what he was quoting or who it was he was quoting from and why is it that it is important (note, he certainly does this at times but could do it more).  The list of Jewish Rabbis in the back of the book wasn’t helpful when you are reading through the book and wondering who this or that Rabbi was since the Rabbis were not listed in alphabetical order but according to their time period.

NOTE: I received this book for free from the publisher Messianic Jewish Publishers through Cross Focused Reviews in exchange for my honest opinion. The thoughts and words are my own and I was under no obligation to provide a favorable review.

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Not too long, internet Christian apologist J.W. Wartick had a good post about recovering the lost defense of Christianity.  I’ve enjoyed what he had to say, and had myself here on Veritas Domain introduced apologetics’ resources from the past that still have value for today (besides the value of historical insight into the development and progress of how Christian apologetics have progressed today, or even how the past can point out similar timeless truth!).

Why not as old, I this resource is one that is important, concerning Messianic prophecies.

William N. Harding is Professor Emeritus of Old Testament and Practical Theology at Biblical Theological Seminary and presently serves as the Seminary Chaplain. He continues a lifelong teaching ministry at churches, Bible conferences, and college campuses worldwide. He is a graduate of the King’s College and Faith Theological Seminary (M.Div and S.T.M.)

His syllabus could be accessed by clicking HERE.

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Last year, I wrote a short post concerning my fascination with the relationship of Presuppositional Apologetics and Messianic Prophecies which you can read about HERE.  I do believe that it’s important for the apologist to be conscious of worldview and philosophical undercurrents behind those who might rule out Messianic prophecies that attests to the Christian faith as true, and would love to see more Presuppositionalists engage with Messianic prophecies, while those apologists who engage with the exegetical and historical work of Messianic prophecies be more equipped with Presuppositional apologetics as the framework of going about defending the faith!  To that end, I think this post might be appropriate for readers to be better equipped with knowledge of the amazing Messianic prophecy of Isaiah 53.

Earlier this year (2012), John MacArthur had a mini-series going through Isaiah 53, focusing on it as Messianic Prophecy of Jesus Christ.  They are made available by Grace to You ministries, and below, you can download each individual messages.

1.) The Astonishing Servant of Jehovah (Overview of Isaiah 53) Download: High Low

2.) The Startling Servant of Jehovah  (Isaiah 52:13-15) Download: High Low

3.) The Scorned Servant of Jehovah, Part 1 (Isaiah 53:1-3) Download: High Low

4.) The Scorned Servant of Jehovah, Part 2 (Isaiah 53:1-3) Download: High Low

5.) The Substituted Servant, Part 1  (Isaiah 53:4-6) Download: High Low

6.) The Substituted Servant, Part 2 (Isaiah 53:4-6) Download: High Low

7.) The Silent Servant, Part 1 (Isaiah 53:7-9) Download: High Low

8.) The Silent Servant, Part 2 (Isaiah 53:7-9) Download: High Low

9.) The Sovereign Servant, Part 1 (Isaiah 53:10-12) Download: High Low

10.) The Sovereign Servant, Part 2 (Isaiah 53:10-12) Download: High Low

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I. Identifying Oracles of Salvation

a. While there are prophetic genre that brings bad news (see Session Eleven on Announcement of Judgment), there are also prophetic genre that brings good news: The Oracle of Salvation.

b. Definition

i.      Also goes by the name promise.[1]

“Promise is the assurance that the LORD will deliver his people and renew his blessing.”[2]

ii.      What is meant by salvation?

“Salvation is any act of God’s goodness and care, of his justice and fairness, of his grace in answering the prayers of sinners.”[3]

iii.      Thus, an oracle of salvation is God’s promise or prophetic reassurance of His promise that He will act in a way that show’s his graciousness and care.

iv.      It is “a word from God that assures people of the validity of God’s promise during a crisis and of his deliverance from an adverse situation.”[4]

c. Elements[5]

i.      Reference to the future

ii.      Mention of radical change

iii.      Mention of blessing

d. Two sub-genre

i.      Promise of Salvation

1. These “address the needs of the people by using the form of an oracle of assurance to an individual.[6]

2. Elements[7]

a. Reassurance

b. Future transformation

c. Basis for reassurance

ii.      Proclamation of Salvation

1. This form “responds to a communal lament and, in doing so, draws much of its language from lament.”[8]

2. Elements[9]

a. Lament

b. Reassurance

c. Future transformation

d. Basis for reassurance

II. Principles in interpretation

a. Prophetic literature is largely poetic, and hermeneutical principles for poetry applies here too.

i.      “God spoke through his prophets largely by poems…”[10]

ii.      Therefore, all the principles in Session Six concerning parallelism apply here as well.

b. Identify the elements within the text.

Consciously identifying elements as listed earlier will help strengthen one’s interpretation of clauses and sentences.

c. If possible, try to identify the specific historical situation from other area in Scripture.

i.      An aspect of oracle of salvation is a future reversal of the announcement of judgment.

ii.      Knowing this background would lead to a further appreciation of God’s faithfulness.

d. Have the announcement of judgment give light to oracle of announcement.

i.      This shows the inter-relationship of genres, and the importance of this in hermeneutics.

ii.      Grace of the oracle of Salvation would be best appreciated in light of announcement of judgment.

e. Remember the Covenants and other promises God made earlier.

Oracle of salvation are not only based upon previous promises but they complement them and even give further details.

f. Realized that some of the prophecies have been fulfilled, others are still awaiting fulfillment.

i.      The prophecies fulfilled should be the basis of trusting that what God says is true.

ii.      The prophecies awaiting fulfillment should give us hope for the future.

[1] Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart., How to Read the Bible for All its Worth, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan), 178.

[2] Willem A. VanGemeren, “Oracles of Salvation” Cracking Old Testament Codes, (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House Company), 140.

[3] Ibid, 139.

[4] Ibid, 145.

[5] Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart., How to Read the Bible for All its Worth, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan), 178.

[6] Willem A. VanGemeren, “Oracles of Salvation” Cracking Old Testament Codes, (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House Company), 143.

[7] Ibid, 144.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid, 144-145.

[10] Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart., How to Read the Bible for All its Worth, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan), 179-180.


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I. What a Prophet is and does

a. What a prophet is

i. A prophet is an office that God calls an individual to; usually he is called in a supernatural event of a Divine Confrontation of some sort.[1]

ii.      “God enables prophets to speak and act as he desires.”[2]

iii.      He is a representative of God.[3]

iv.      “The biblical terminology used for the prophets indicates that they ‘see’ things usually not perceived by others.”[4]

v.      A Prophet lives a exemplary moral life (1Samuel 12:3-5), unlike false prophets (Isaiah 28: 7-8; Jeremiah 23:10-14).[5]

b. What a prophet does

i.      He represents God.

ii.      He is a spokesperson for God.[6]  Thus, he utters God’s Word.

iii.      “The prophets were covenant enforcement mediators.”[7]

iv.      Prophecy was written and spoken at the same time[8]

1. He verbally communicates his message.[9]

2. It was written down: Isaiah 8:1, 16; 30:8; Jeremiah 36:2; 51:60; Ezekiel 2:9-10; 43:11-12; Habakkuk 2:2

3. Why did prophets write down their material?

a. “Given that understanding of the eternal significance of the divine Word, we should expect the prophets to commit their words to writing.”[10]

b. Vindicate the truth of the Prophet’s message.[11]

II. Identifying Announcement of Judgment

a. Definition

i.      Announcement of Judgment were messages of the prophets which warns the people about God’s judgment.

ii.      It serves as a rebuke to the people from Yahweh himself.

b. Elements within an Announcement of Judgment[12]

i.      An accusation

1. This shows what it is that God is accusing the people of.

2. It is the sin that the Prophet is pointing out to the people.

ii.      An announcement

1. The announcement is usually in the second person.[13]

2. This shows what God will do if the people will not repent.

c. Forms of Announcement of Judgment

i.      Prophecy of disaster


a. Diatribe- Indication of the situation.

b. Threat- Prediction of disaster.

c. Including characterization- Something about the messenger or the hearer.

ii. Woe oracle

a.      “ ‘Woe’ was the word ancient Israelites cried out when facing disaster or death, or when they mourned at a funeral…no Israelite could miss the significance of the use of that word.”[15]

b. Elements[16]

i.      Exclamation of dismay introduced by woe or alas.

ii.      Participle describing wrongful action or noun giving a negative characterization of the people.

iii. Prophetic lawsuit

a. A legal motif.

b.      “God is portrayed imaginatively as the plaintiff, prosecuting attorney, judge and bailiff in a court case against the defendant, Israel.”[17]

c. Elements[18]

i.      Introduction- “Calling audience to hear and often appealing to heavens and earth as witnesses.”[19]

ii.      Statement of accusation

iii.      Prosecuting attorney’s address

iv.      “Description of the inability of cultic ritual to atone for such wrong acts”[20]

v.      Warning- Calling the listeners to turn back to God and obey Him.

III. Principles in interpretation

a. Prophetic literature is largely poetic, and hermeneutical principles for poetry applies here too.

i.      “God spoke through his prophets largely by poems…”[21]

ii.      Therefore, all the principles in Session Six concerning parallelism apply here as well.

b. If possible, try to identify the specific historical situation from other area in Scripture.[22]

In the amazing flow of the Bible’s diversity (various genres) and unity (the inter-dependence of the various genre), narratives and historical narratives in the Bible are helpful in this regard.  This will enrich one’s interpretation.

c. Identify the elements within the text.

Consciously identifying elements as listed earlier will help strengthen one’s interpretation of clauses and sentences.

d. Identify the sins which the people were rebuked for.

Pay attention to what sins God grieved over, and practically how this address us today if we have similar sins.

e. Remember the Covenants, the Covenants that are antecedent to the Prophetic text.

i.      Remember as stated earlier, prophets are covenantal enforcers.

ii.      In yet another beautiful illustration of how the Bible can interpret the Bible itself through various modes of Genre and the interplay of genres, the Law genre and narrative texts which stipulate the conditions of the Covenants are important background information to keep in mind when approaching announcement of judgment.

[1] Michael J. Williams, The Prophet and His Message, (Phillipsburg, New Jersey: Presbyterian and Reformed), 54-55.

[2] Ibid, 70.

[3] Ibid, 71.

[4] Ibid, 69.

[5] Ibid, 67-68,

[6] Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart., How to Read the Bible for All its Worth, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan), 166.

[7] Ibid, 167.

[8] C. Hassell Bullock, An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophetic Books, (Chicago: Moody Press), 33.

[9] Michael J. Williams, The Prophet and His Message, (Phillipsburg, New Jersey: Presbyterian and Reformed), 74-75

[10] C. Hassell Bullock, An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophetic Books, (Chicago: Moody Press), 32.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Trent C. Butler, “Announcement of Judgment” Cracking Old Testament Codes, (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House Company), 160.

[13] Ibid, 162.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart., How to Read the Bible for All its Worth, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan), 178.

[16] Trent C. Butler, “Announcement of Judgment” Cracking Old Testament Codes, (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House Company), 163.

[17] Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart., How to Read the Bible for All its Worth, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan), 177-8.

[18] Trent C. Butler, “Announcement of Judgment” Cracking Old Testament Codes, (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House Company), 163.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart., How to Read the Bible for All its Worth, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan), 179-180.

[22] Trent C. Butler, “Announcement of Judgment” Cracking Old Testament Codes, (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House Company), 166.


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As 2011 comes to a close, it’s a good time to reflect on the last year’s worth of blogging.

I began to consciouly write more better theological essays for Veritas Domain beginning in 2010.  This year, I’ve attempted to continue in the vein begun in 2010 of writing essays concerning the inter-relationship of various theological disciplines, having been shaped by the framework and insight of Cornelius Van Til’s Presuppositional Apologetics and John Frame’s Multiperspectivalism that Christianity alone can account for the unity, diversity and  beautiful inter-relating facets of various academic or theological disciplines (such as hermeneutics, eschatology, Messianic prophecies, apologetics, apologetic tactics and exegesis).   The inter-relationship and the coherence of how all things come together has made me have a deeper desire to stand at awe at God for the coherence of His truth.  It makes me want to worship Him!

I hope to continue further exploration and writing next year.  In contrast with 2010, I think 2011 has been a year where I was more conscious of hermeneutics in what I wrote, and more focused on being driven by exegesis.

Here are the few essays that I’ve attempted to go further indepth than my usual blogging posts, in my exploration for 2012 thus far:

1.) Has the Totality of Jeremiah 50-51 been fulfilled concerning Babylon?— Employing a historical-grammatical hermeneutics while being conscious of lexical meaning of Hebrew terms and extra-biblical history, I’ve tried to argue that the prophecies found in Jeremiah 50-51 demonstrate a future literal Babylon that will be a key player in eschatological events since the prophecied destruction still awaits in history.  This is an application of historical grammatical heremenutics, attention to the Hebrew lexically and history towards the theological subject of eschatology.

2.) Critique of Rob Bell’s Theological Method Behind his Soteriology— The biggest theological scandal of 2011 was Rob Bell’s soteriology (well, besides Harold Camping’s May 21st, 2011 false prophecy I suppose).  I’ve attempted to critique the theological method of Rob Bell behind his soteriology with the consideration of he define (or redefine) terms, how he employ his proof text and his theological precommitments that would shape his hermeneutics (notably, his view of God’s love and “In-and-out” issue).  I am driven here by the realization that one must be conscious not just their soteriology but also there theological methods.

3.) Jesus the Presuppositionalist?  Debating the Issue of Authority (Luke 20:1-8)— Realizing the need for Presuppositional apologetics to be exegetically grounded in the text of Scripture, I’ve attempted to give exegetical support for the tactics of Presuppositional apologetics.  I believe the exegetical support for Presuppositional apologetics is an area that can be furthered advance, and I’ve attempted to look at a passage in the Bible that haven’t recieve much attention of serious exegetes in support of a particular apologetics methodology.  This is one sample chapter from my pre-pre-draft of my thesis (the thesis will look at the entirety of Luke 20, not just eight verses).  I write this in the spirit of hoping to be an exegete hoping it will shape one’s method of apologetics while using a historical grammatical heremeneutics with relevant understanding of Second Temple Judaism informing us what Jesus opponents were like and appreciating more deeply Jesus’ apologetics.

4.) Presuppositional Apologetics, Prophecies Yahweh’s Challenges to False Gods–Not necessarily an essay here, but I have it here because the relationship of Theology Proper (God knowing the future), prophecies and apologetics against other religions is shortly mentioned here.

5.) Thoughts on the Use Testament Use of the Old Testament— Self-explanatory title.

6.) The Use of Psalm 118:24 and Isaiah 8:14 as Messianic Stone Prophecies in Luke 20 in light of Genesis 49 as Antecedent Theology— Use of antecedent theology of Genesis 49  in understanding Psalm 118:24 and Isaiah 8:14 as Messianic prophecies which Jesus used in his apologetics in Luke 20.

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Perhaps there is no topic about the Bible that fascinates the curious as fulfilled Bible prophecies.  There is something glorious about seeing what has been written down in the pages of Scripture that finds its fulfillment hundreds or even thousands of years later.  At the same time, questions do arise concerning the mechanics of how biblical prophecies work, such as how the Old Testament relates to the New Testament.  Does the plain reading of certain Old Testament passages hint at Messianic prophecy?  Or is the prophetic nature of these passages known only in light of the New Testament?  John Sailhamer writes, “Put simply, the problem of prophecy and fulfillment is the problem of the relationship of the OT to the NT.”[1]

How one answers the question of the relationship between the Old and the New has implication towards apologetics.  If there is nothing within the original Old Testament context that suggests a passage is a Messianic prophecy, the evidential value of the New Testament citing these texts as prophecies would be weakened.  At the same time, if the historical and grammatical readings of certain Old Testament passages are sufficient within their own original context to establish that they are Messianic prophecies which Jesus later fulfilled, the value of such prophecies would greatly lend its support towards the veracity of the Christian faith.

This paper will take the position that when the New Testament employs Old Testament passages prophetically, the use of these Old Testament passages are consistent with the historical and grammatical hermeneutic.  An important nuance here concerning the “historical” in the historical grammatical hermeneutic is that the interpretation of key terms in any given passage should also be informed by antecedent theology.  Thus, whenever the New Testament identifies an Old Testament passage as prophetic, the prophetic nature of the text can be derived on the basis of its original context simply by employing the historical grammatical method.  Space does not permit a survey of all the New Testament prophetic use of the Old Testament.  As a case study, this paper will explore Jesus’ use of Messianic Stone prophecy in Luke 20.

Method of Study

The first section of this paper will look at Luke 20 to situate Jesus’ use of the Messianic Stone prophecies.  This is followed in the next section with an exegesis of the two Old Testament passages that Jesus used in Luke 20 within each of their original contexts.  These two verses are Psalm 118:25 and Isaiah 8:14.  Then the third section will establish that both Psalm 118:25 and Isaiah 8:14 are Messianic prophecies in light of Genesis 49 as informing antecedent theology.  Relevant exegetical consideration of Genesis 49 will be discussed in this third section of the paper.

Jesus’ use of Stone Prophecies in Luke 20

The general background of Luke 20 is that this was towards the end of Jesus’ ministry, during the last week of His life on earth prior to His crucifixion.  In Luke 20, Jesus was confronted by the Jewish religious leaders who opposed Him.  Wishing to bring Him down, they provoked a series of religious debates with Jesus before the presence of the crowd of people gathering for the Passover in Jerusalem.

The religious leaders’ attacks were in the form of questions.  The first question was concerning Jesus’ authority (20:2).  The second question they threw at Him was concerning whether to pay taxes or not to Caesar (20:21-22).  It is in between these two hostile questions directed at Jesus that Jesus took the time to cite Old Testament Messianic prophecies (20:17-18).  In Luke 20:17-18, Jesus cites Psalm 118:22 and Isaiah 8:14.  What both these verses have in common is the word “Stone” in them.  For the purpose of this essay, both of these are referred to as the Messianic Stone prophecies.

The immediate context of Jesus’ use of these two Old Testament passages is situated in the section of Luke 20:9-18.  Here, Jesus told a parable to the people as His primary audience (20:9).  The parable is often called the parable of the wicked servants.  In this parable, Jesus taught the people that the religious leaders were out to kill God’s beloved Son as part of a continuous historical line of prophets sent from God who were persecuted.  The people’s response to this news was one of shock and disbelief.

It is then that Jesus cites Psalm 118:22.  Jesus responded to the horror of the people by saying:  “And while he was looking at them He said, ‘Therefore why is this written, “The Stone which the builders rejected, this one became into head cornerstone?”’” (Luke 20:17).  His comment here after the parable was integral to the parable’s meaning.[2]  Jesus is no longer talking in parable form but speaks plainly.[3]  Luke tells the readers that ὁ δὲ ἐμβλέψας αὐτοῖς (“And while he was looking at them”), which is not mentioned in any other Gospels’ account.[4]  The verb ἐμβλέψας here is an aorist active participle nominative masculine singular of the verb εμβλεπω.  Εμβλεπω has the idea of direct and intense gaze that commands attention, and is mentioned here to the readers to draw attention to Jesus’ following question.[5]  Luke perhaps wants the readers to understand the solemnity of the occasion.[6]

Jesus’ response to the people in Luke 20:17-18 was to vindicate the truth of His claim that the religious leaders will first kill the Messiah and that the religious leaders will then be rejected by God for their murder of God’s Son.  It is significant to note that Jesus presents His evidence in the form of a question:  “Before his shocked audience can recover, Jesus asks them what Psalm 118:22 means.”[7]  Questions are also great formats in apologetics since it actively pushes one’s hearer to interact with one’s evidence and perspective, etc.  The question that Jesus asks begins with a τί, which Johnson suggests should be taken as an interrogative adverb “why,” seeing that this is more “responsive” to the people’s exclamation than the literal “what then is this…”[8]

The evidence that Jesus cited to support His conclusion came from the Scripture.  Jesus’ strong bibliology is indicated here by the fact that He trusted in the authority of the Scriptures as that which will justify His theological claims.  He recites Psalm 118:22 verbatim from the Greek Septuagint.[9]  There are ironies in Jesus citation from Psalm 118:22.  To begin with, it was a psalm of national comfort that now indicts the leaders of Israel.[10]  During Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem, a few days prior to this parable being told, the people had earlier cited Psalm 118:26 and attributed to Him as the coming King who comes in the name of the Lord (19:38).[11]  Jesus takes this Psalm and goes four verses prior to their verse to establish the point that the leaders (“builders”) of Israel will be judged.  According to Evans, “There is an additional touch of irony here when it is noted that the religious leaders called themselves the ‘Builders of Israel.’”[12]  The passage paints a severe imagery.  The basis of the severe judgment was because of their relationship to the “Stone.”

Stein believes that “the capstone refers to the head cornerstone that bore the weight and stress of the two walls built upon it.  Its function and importance was like that of a capstone in a cathedral without which the vaulted ceiling would collapse.”[13]  Nolland understand the chief stone a little differently, believing that it “may be a keystone locking into place the stones of an arch or some similarly constructed feature of a building.”[14]  Whether one takes the first view or the second, Nolland admits the “differences of imagery does not affect the final sense.”[15] Jesus here is alluding to the fact that He was the Stone that will be rejected, and rejecting Him will bring about severe consequence.

Jesus does not end with Psalm 118:22.  In verse eighteen Jesus goes on further in speaking about the devastating judgment upon those who reject the Stone.[16]  There are echoes of Isaiah 8:14-15 and Daniel 2:44 here.  According to Godet, “In Isaiah, the Messiah is represented as a consecrated Stone, against which many of the children of Israel shall be broken.”[17]  Isaiah 8:14 paints the “Stone of stumbling” as a trap for “the house of Jacob” and “inhabitants of Jerusalem.”[18]  The verb λικμήσει used here in Luke 20:18 have the idea of crushing and scattering grains in the winnowing process.[19]  It paints an image of those being crushed by the Stone to the point of fine powder.  Instead of the previous image of the Jewish leaders falling on the Stone here it is an imagery of them being crushed by the Stone falling upon them. [20]  The Stone is not just passive, but is active in judging those who reject Him.  The two verses taken together demonstrate that there are two possibilities for those who have rejected Christ: either they fall on this Stone, or the Stone falls on it.[21] There is a lesson here about the Son.  He might not be whom the vinedressers/religious leaders originally made Him out to be, and is no mere victim.  While in verse fourteen the son looks “vulnerable,” here in verse 18-19 one learns that He is an indestructible rock that would crush others.[22]

Evaluating verses seventeen and eighteen together, readers will see that Jesus has gathered Scriptural citations and allusion around the word “Stone.”[23]  He cites it to prove His point that the Messiah will be rejected and also as the source of doom for His enemies.  While Jesus masterfully proved His point, surprisingly Jesus in Luke 20 never took the time to prove that the Stone refers to the Messiah.  He just assumes the referent of the Stone to be the Messiah to begin with.  For modern readers, this sparks a series of questions:  Was Jesus justified in His belief that the Stone in Psalm 118:22 and Isaiah 8:14 referred to the Messiah?  Where did Jesus get the idea that the Stone referred to the Messiah from anyways?  And how does one go about justifying that the Stone refers to the Messiah?  Before exploring the justification that the Messiah is the referent for the “Stone” on the basis of antecedent theology, it is important to first consider both Psalm 118:22 and Isaiah 8:14 within it’s original context.

Messianic Stone Prophecies in their Original Contexts

Psalm 118:22

According to commentator Leslie Allen, Psalm 118 “was composed as a royal song of thanksgiving for military victory; but it is set in the context of a processional liturgy.”[24]  Psalm 118 is actually part of a series of six Psalms beginning with Psalm 113 through 118 which is known as the Hallel (meaning “praise”) Psalms.[25]  These Psalms would be sung by the Jews as a thanksgiving liturgy during the three major religious holidays: Passover, Pentecost, Tabernacle.  As a processional psalm, it was sang outside the temple gates and continued inside as well.[26]

Commentators have disagreed as to what Psalm 118 as a whole was originally about.  Fred Blumenthal explains the reason underlining this difficulty: “Of the 150 chapters of the Psalms only very few have an introductory heading describing their setting or purpose (e.g. 30:1, 34:1, 51:1-2).  For the vast majority of them, it is left to the reader to explore the different moods, feelings or situations which the author describes or expresses, and which vary from chapter to chapter.”[27]  Commentator Derek Kidner takes Psalm 118 as a picture of the “rescue of Israel at the Exodus, and the eventual journey’s end at Mount Zion.”[28]  Allen takes this to be in references to a Davidic king’s entrance into the city.[29]  Adele Berlin on the other hand, understands Psalm 118 primarily to be a celebration of God’s power of salvation.[30]

How one understand the meaning of Psalm 118 as a whole will shape one’s interpretation of Psalm 118:22 and determine whether it’s a Messianic prophecy or not.  For instance, due to Leslie Allen’s belief that this Psalm as a whole is about a king’s military victory, this has already inclined him not to view verse 22 as Messianic prophecy and makes him susceptible to miss any possible references to the Messiah altogether.  He sees verse 22 as a proverbial saying during the people’s praise of the king:  “To aid their praise they evidently cite a proverb that expresses transition from humiliation to honor, in which a generally discarded Stone became the foundation Stone stabilizing two adjacent walls (cf. Job 38:6; Isa 28:16; Jer 51:26).”[31]  Addressing Allen’s interpretation of verse 22 eventually requires one to address what he believes Psalm 118 as a whole is about.  The view that Psalm 118 is largely about a military victory has its problem, since warfare language does not dominate this Psalm.  If military victory of a king was the main point of this Psalm of praising God, one would expect multiple warfare terminology.  Even with the verses that Allen does interpret as descriptive of a conquering king, it is also possible to interpret these verses as God saving someone from persecution in general rather than a specific military victory.

Berlin’s believes that Psalm 118 is primarily about God’s power of salvation.  This view seems more likely to be the answer than Allen’s view.  The word salvation appears three times (v.14, 15, 21) and the verb “save” appears twice in this Psalm (v.25).  Metaphors of being save is frequently invoked  such as in verse 5, “The LORD answered me and set me in a large place,” verse 7, “The LORD is for me among those who help me,” verse 9, “It is better to take refuge in the LORD…”, v.13, “The LORD helped me,” etc.

Understanding the Psalm as about God’s power of salvation allows a better outline of the Psalm that respects its organic unity:

Call for Thanksgiving in light of God’s everlasting lovingkindness (v.1-4)

The LORD is a better Savior (v.5-9)

The LORD is a Savior against the nations (v.10-14)

The LORD is a Savior against death (v.15-18)

The LORD is a Justifying Savior (v.19-21)

The LORD is a rejected but precious Savior (v.22-29)

Evaluating Psalms 118:22 within its immediate context, the verse begins the section of the LORD as a rejected Savior.  In fact, the rest of the section seems to give prominence to the events described in verse 22.   The verse talks about a Stone being rejected by the builders.  While rejected by the builders, the second half of verse 22 further describes this Stone then becoming the chief cornerstone.  Verses 23-24 continues its focus on the Stone prophecy of verse 22, as indicated in verse 23 when the subject is the pronoun זֹּאת meaning “this,” that is referring back to the previous verse about what has happened to the Stone.  Verse 23 describes how this rejection and exalting of the Stone is done by the LORD.  The response from the Psalmist to this truth is stated in the second half of verse 23, that this “was marvelous in our eyes.”  The first line of verse 24 again informs the reader that this rejection and exaltation of the Stone was done by the LORD, a repetition to emphasize that this fact is important.  In the second line of verse 24, two verbs appear back to back:  נָגִילָה, which is a Qal imperfect first common plural verb of גִילָ “rejoice,” and נִשְׂמְחָה which is also a Qal imperfect first common plural verb, coming from the root שָׂמַח meaning “rejoice.”  Both verbs here are functioning as cohortative and understood as “Let us…”  What we should rejoice in is described as בֹו  (“in it”) with the “it” understood as the event in verse 22 of the Messianic Stone rejected and then raise to prominence.

It seems that whoever the referent of the Stone is, the topic of the Stone is important and out of it flows the remainder of the Psalmist praise to God (118:25-29).  Looking at verse 22 again, the Hebrew word for Stone here is אֶבֶן.  Here in verse 22,אֶבֶן is mentioned first with the order of object–> verb.  This breaks the typical Hebrew syntax of verb–> subject–>object.  אֶבֶן then is in an emphatic position, which the author placed there in order to stress the importance of the Stone.

Who is this Stone?  Whoever this Stone is, Psalm 118:22 predicts that this individual will be rejected and then accepted.  The verses that follows after verse 22 also teaches that this is the work of the LORD and that it is something to praise God about.  It seems that an understanding of this Stone prophecy requires further Old Testament background in order to know what this term is referring to.  The syntax of Psalm 118:22 emphasizes the term “Stone,” and perhaps this is calling attention to the reader’s previous background and familiarization with this title.  If this term is a reference to the Messiah, it is marvelous to consider the providence of God.  During the Jewish procession to the Temple, Psalm 118:22-24 was what the Jews prayed to God right before they entered into the temple area itself.[32]  It is as if God has providentially allowed the Jews to remember the Messiah and sing about the Messiah right before they went into the Temple.

          Isaiah 8:14

Unlike Jesus’ use of Psalm 118:22 in Luke 20, Jesus does not quote verbatim Isaiah 8:14 but instead makes strong allusions to this text in Luke 20:18.  Luke 20:18 states, “Everyone who falls on that Stone will be broken to pieces; but on whomever it falls, it will scatter him like dust” (NASB).  Turning to Isaiah 8:14, it states, “Then He shall become a sanctuary; But to both the houses of Israel, a Stone to strike and a rock to stumble over, and a snare and a trap for the inhabitants of Jerusalem.”  Both passages give references to (1) the Stone, (2) the Stone potential of striking someone and (3) the Stone as something that will cause others to fall.

The chapter context of Isaiah 8:14 must be taken into consideration.  David W. Pao and Eckhard J. Schnabel write, “In Isaiah 8 the nation is threatened with invasion by Syria and northern Israel, a crisis that prompted Isaiah to challenge the people to fear not conspiracy and invasion, but Yahweh.”[33]  The immediate context of Isaiah 8:14 is the paragraph beginning in verse 11 and ending in verse 15.  This paragraph must be seen as logically separate from Isaiah 8:16 onwards, since verses 16-23 makes a radical break from verses 11-15.[34]  Verse 11 declares what the LORD has said to Isaiah for the people, and the manner in which God says it.  From verse 12 onwards in this paragraph, the verbs now become plural, indicating that the words are now for the people from God directly.[35]  In verse 13, God calls His people to fear the LORD, though the people had a lot of fear going on in their midst of invading nations.  God wants them to direct their fear Godward, and have a theological awareness of the LORD.[36]  It is a reverential fear of Him that God wants.

Then in verse 14, Isaiah writes in the first half of the verse about the consequences for those who fear Him.  Oswalt comments, “To those who sanctify him, who give him a place of importance in their lives, who seek to allow his character to be duplicated in them, he becomes a sanctuary, a place of refuge and peace.”[37]  Moyter notes that the term sanctuary is not so much an asylum as it is a “holy place.”[38]  The second half of verse 14 also warns the reader about the devastating consequences of those who do not fear the LORD.  In his commentary on this verse, Edward J. Young writes, “To those in both the north and south God will be a Stone; to some a sanctuary, but to others a Stone of stumbling.”[39]  While in the English NASB the second half of verse 14 begins with, “But to both the houses of Israel, a Stone to strike…”, in the Hebrew the second portion of verse fourteen begin with “A Stone of stumbling and a falling rock…”  Like Psalm 118:22, the word Stone, אֶבֶן, as the direct object appears prior to the subject which is contrary to traditional Hebrew syntax.  The word Stone, and what it does, is in the emphatic, attention to the importance of the Stone.  This Stone will apparently cause devastating consequences upon those who were to stumble over it or having the Stone fallen upon them.

It is important to realize that this Stone is a title for a person and not just an inanimate object.  Isaiah actually talks more about the Stone later in Isaiah 28:16.  Here in this context, the LORD sends Isaiah to rebuke the ruling elite in Jerusalem (Isaiah 28:14).  In verse 16, God informs the leaders that He was going to lay in Zion a tested Stone.  Those who trust “in it will not be disturbed.”  It would be idolatrous for God to call man to trust in an inanimate creation of God.  It must therefore be a person, and specifically a Divine person in order for it not to be idolatry.  The next logical question would be whether Isaiah and his readers have any previous theological knowledge from Scripture that anticipates or is foundational for Isaiah’s discussion of this Divine Living Stone?

Messianic Stone Prophecies in light of Genesis 49 as Antecedent Theology

People do not typically think of the book of Genesis as a book that contains prophecy.  Typically, people think of Genesis largely as a work of narrative.  However, it seems that Genesis does make some prophetic pronouncement, and Genesis 49 is an important chapter that serves as the antecedent theology for the Messianic Stone prophecies.

Genesis 49 takes place towards the end of Jacob’s life.  Here in this chapter “the patriarch calls for the gathering of the ‘sons of Jacob’ for his official blessing (vv. 1-2), presumably pronounced from his deathbed (48:2, 21; 49:33).”[40]  According to Allen Ross, “Jacob, in faith and as God’s covenantal instrument, looked forward to the conquest and settlement of Israel in the land of Canaan, and then beyond to a more glorious age.”[41]

The prophetic nature of Genesis 49 can be gleamed from details within the chapter and also at a larger macro-structural level.  By the macro-structural level, what is meant is the analysis of the book of Genesis and the Pentateuch as a whole, while paying attention to the transition between the genre of narrative, poetry and epilogue summary.  John Sailhammer explains:

A close study of the author’s use of narrative and poetic texts, however, sheds considerable light on the final shape of the work.  The technique of using a poetic speech and a short epilogue to conclude a narrative is well known in Biblical literature and occurs frequently within recognizable segment of the Pentateuch itself.[42]

Genesis 49 happens to be one of the three poetic chapters in the Pentateuch that Sailhamer has identified as major structural juncture in which a prophetic discourse follow a large unit of narrative.[43]  The other two chapters are Number 24 and Deuteronomy 31.[44]  Sailhamer explains how, “In each of the three segments, the central narrative figure (Jacob, Balaam, Moses) calls an audience together (imperative: Gen. 49:1; Num 24:14; Deut 31:29) in the ‘end of days’ (Genesis 49:1; Num 24:14; Deut 31:29).”[45]  The phrase “end of days” is important in understanding Genesis 49 and the other two major structural juncture of the Pentateuch.  Seeing that this prophetic formula appears not only in Genesis 49 but in two other prophetic chapters in the Pentateuch reinforces the position that Genesis 49 contains prophecies.  Sailhamer goes on to say,

To summarize what appears to be the overall strategy of the author in these three segments, we might say that one of the central concerns lying behind the final shape of the Pentateuch is an attempt to uncover an inherent relationship between the past and the future.  That which happened to God’s people in the past portends events that still lie in the future.  Or, to say it another way, the past is the seen as a lesson of the future.[46]

This narrative–>Prophetic poetry–>Epilogue pattern is the ground for why readers are justified in looking for typology in the Pentateuch.  But within the details of the chapter, Genesis 49 also has a prophetic tone to it as indicated by verse 1, with the use of “listen” such as parallel with Isaiah 48:14 use of “listen” prophetically, and as it was mentioned above, the idiom “in days to come.”[47]

In this chapter, there are titles of the Messiah that first appear in Scripture which sets the precedence for the Messiah to be called by various titles.  For instance, the section in Genesis 49:8-12 is devoted to Judah.  Since the Messiah would come from the line of Judah, in verse 9, Judah is described as a lion, which sets the precedence for the Messiah to be called the Lion of Judah in extra-biblical literature (Gen. Rab 98.7, Ezra 11:37; 12:31) and in the New Testament (Revelation 5:5).[48]  John Calvin has noted that the phrase “the scepter will not depart from Judah” in verse ten refers to dominion.[49]  It is a terminology that symbolizes monarchy.[50]  What is fascinating about this prophetic pronouncement about Judah’s heir will include a king is that this occurs hundreds of years before Israel had any kings in office.

It is in Joseph’s section of Jacob’s blessing in verses 22 through 26, that the Messianic title “Stone” first makes its appearance in Scripture.  In context, the Joseph’s section gives an oracle of how Joseph’s two tribes will experience military victory.  Here in this section, there are references to Judah again, in verses 24.  Specifically, the reason why Joseph’s bow would remain firm and his arms will be agile is because of “the mighty One of Jacob.”  The preposition מִ indicates the source of Joseph’s prowess.  The verse goes on to describe how Jacob’s tribe will be the source of one who is the “Shepherd” and the “Stone of Israel.”  Allan Ross comments how there are wonderful titles of God here: the Mighty One of Jacob, the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel, your father’s God and the Almighty.[51]  What is fascinating is that these titles are also given to the Mighty one who is to come from Judah’s line.  In the same way that verse 24-25 is the antecedent theology for future Scriptural use of the title “Shepherd” for the Messiah, the title of the Messiah as “Stone” finds it antecedent here.  It is marvelous to see that while Biblical Hebrew have several terms for “stone” or “rock,” in the case of the Messianic Stone prophecies of Genesis 49:24, Psalm 118:24, Isaiah 8:14 and 28:16, the consistent Hebrew word for stone is אֶבֶן.[52]  The word אֶבֶן refers to natural and precious stone.[53]  It is a fitting title for the Messiah, which Isaiah 28:16 specifically describe as precious.  For those who know the Messiah, He is indeed someone valuable and precious.  For those that do not know the Messiah, the Messianic Stone prophecies have made it clear what the dire consequences look like.


Allen, Leslie. Psalm 101-150.  World Biblical Commentary.  59 Volumes.  Edited by David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Books Publishers, 2002.

Baron,David. Types, Psalms and Prophecies.  London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1907.

Berlin, Adele.  “Psalm 118 Critical Notes.” In Journal of Biblical Literature 96, no. 4 (December, 1977): 567-568.

Blumenthal, Fred. “Psalm 118.” Jewish Bible Quarterly 39, no. 2 (April-June 2011): 115-117.

Bock, Darrell L. Luke Volume 2: 9:51-24:53. BECNT. 12 Volumes. Edited by Donald A. Hagner and I. Howard Marshall. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996.

Calvin, John. Genesis.  Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books, 2001.

Evans, Craig.  Luke.  New International Biblical Commmentary.  18 volumes.  Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1990.

Godet, Frederic Louis. Commentary on Luke.  Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1981.

Green, Joel B. The Gospel of Luke.  The New International Commentary on the New Testament. 18 Volumes. Edited by Gordon D. Fee. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1997.

Kidner, Derek. Psalm 73-150.  London: Intervarsity Press, 1975.

Johnson, Luke Timothy. The Gospel of Luke.  Sacra Pagina.  18 Volumes.  Edited by Daniel J. Harrington.  Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1991.

Lenski, R.C.H The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel.  Columbus, Ohio: The Wartburg Press, 1946.

Matthews, Kevin A. Genesis 11:27-50:26.  New American Commentary.  Nashville: Broadman and Holman Publishers, 2005.

Marshall, I. Howard. The Gosepl of Luke. The New International Greek Testament Commentary. Edited by Donald A. Hagner and I. Howard Marshall. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1978.

Moyter, J. Alec.  The Prophecy of Isaiah: An Introduction and Commentary. Downers Grove, Illinois:  Intervarsity Press, 1993.

Nolland, John. Luke 18:35-24:53World Biblical Commentary.  59 Volumes.  Edited by David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Books Publishers, 1993.

Oswalt, John N.  The Book of Isaiah Chapters 1-39. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing House, 1986.

Pao, David W. and Eckhard J. Schnabel. “Luke.”  In Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007.

Ross, Allen P. “Genesis.”  In The Bible Knowledge Commentary.  Colorado Springs, Colorado: Victor, 2005.

Sailhamer, John H. “The Canonical Approach to the OT: It’s Effect on Understanding Prophecy.” Journal of Evangelical Theological Society 30, no. 3 (September 1987): 307-315.

Stein, Robert H. Luke. The New American Commentary.  Edited by David Dockery.  Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman Press, 1992.

Young, Edward J. The Book of Isaiah: The English Text, With Introduction, Exposition and Notes Volume 1: Chapters 1 to 18.  Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1974.

[1] John Sailhamer, “The Canonical Approach to the OT: Its Effect on Understanding Prophecy,” Journal of Evangelical Theological Society 30, no. 3 (September 1987), 307.

[2] Darrell L. Bock, Luke Volume 2: 9:51-24:53, BECNT, 12 vols., edited by Moises Silva, (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996),1602.

[3] R.C.H Lenski, The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, (Columbus, Ohio: The Wartburg Press, 1946), 982.

[4] Luke Timothy Johnson, The Gospel of Luke,  Sacra Pagina, 18 vol., edited by Daniel J. Harrington, (Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1991), 306.

                [5] Ibid.

[6] I. Howard Marshall, The Gospel of Luke. The New International Greek Testament Commentary, edited by Donald A. Hagner and I. Howard Marshall, (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1978), 732.

[7] Craig Evans, Luke, New International Biblical Commentary (Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1990), 299.

[8] Johnson, The Gospel of Luke, 306.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Bock, Luke Volume 2, 1603.

                [11] Lenski, The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, 982-983.

                [12] Evans, Luke, 299.

                [13] Robert H. Stein, Luke, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1992), 493.

[14] John Nolland, Luke, World Biblical Commentary (Dallas, Texas: Word Books Publishers, 1993), 953.

                [15] Ibid.

                [16] Stein, Luke, 493.

                [17] Frederic Louis Godet, Commentary on Luke, (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1981), 433.

                [18] Johnson, The Gospel of Luke, 306.

[19] Ibid.

                [20] Stein, Luke, 493.

                [21] Lenski, The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, 984.

                [22] Nolland, Luke, 954.

[23] Joel B. Green, The Gospel of Luke,  The New International Commentary on the New Testament, 18 vols., edited by Gordon Fee, (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1997), 709.

[24] Leslie Allen, Psalm 101-150, World Biblical Commentary (Dallas, Texas: Word Books Publishers, 2002), 165.

[25] David Baron, Types, Psalms and Prophecies, (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1907), 269.

[26] Allen, Psalm 101-150, 165.

[27] Fred Blumenthal, “Psalm 118,” Jewish Bible Quarterly 39, no. 2 (April-June 2011), 115.

[28] Derek Kidner, Psalm 73-150, (London: Intervarsity Press, 1975), 412.

[29] Allen, Psalm 101-150, 163-167.

[30] Adele Berlin, “Psalm 118 Critical Notes,” Journal of Biblical Literature 96, no. 4 (December, 1977), 567.

[31] Allen, Psalm 101-150, 167.

[32] Blumenthal, “Psalm 118,” 117.

[33] David W. Pao and Eckhard J. Schnabel, “Luke,” in Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007), 362.

[34] John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah Chapters 1-39, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing House, 1986), 235.

[35] J. Alec Moyter, The Prophecy of Isaiah: An Introduction and Commentary, (Downers Grove, Illinois:  Intervarsity Press, 1993), 94.

[36] Ibid, 95.


[37] Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah, 234.

[38] Moyter, The Prophecy of Isaiah, 95

[39] Edward J. Young, The Book of Isaiah: The English Text, With Introduction, Exposition and Notes Volume 1: Chapters 1 to 18, (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1974), 312.

[40] Kevin A. Matthews, Genesis 11:27-50:26, New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman and Holman Publishers, 2005), 885.

[41] Allen P. Ross, “Genesis,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, (Colorado Springs, Colorado: Victor, 2005), 98.

[42] Sailhamer, “The Canonical Approach,” 309.

[43] Ibid, 310.

[44] Ibid.

[45] Sailhamer, “The Canonical Approach,” 310.

[46] Sailhamer, “The Canonical Approach,” 311.

[47] Matthews, Genesis 11:27-50:26, 885.

[48] Ibid, 891.

[49] John Calvin, Genesis, (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books, 2001), 367.

[50] Matthews, Genesis 11:27-50:26, 892.

[51] Ross, “Genesis,” 99.

[52] Matthews, Genesis 11:27-50:26, 906.

[53] Ibid.

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As the reader of Veritas Domain know, this week has been devoted to free books online touching on Christian worldview, theology and apologetics.

I truly believe that Messianic Prophecies are important in the Presuppositionalist’s apologetics arsenal (what better way to open up the Scripture to the nonbeliever, while also being conscious of epistemology, philosophy of history and one’s worldview?).

This word, Types, psalms and prophecies:Being an Old Testament Studies, is a bit of an older work and the free edition is published in 1907.  The author was a Messianic Jew and have written other works that is beneficial to the Christian studying the Old Testament.  It is unfortunate some of his works are not online for free.

If you want to read the work in it’s entirely (more than a sample) on Google books, click HERE.

It can also be downloaded.

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Last week we reviewed this book, which can be read HERE.

Apparently, this book is for free online!

The publishers have put this online as individual PDF pages, with the table of content HERE.

The Table of Content is provided here as well:




PREFACE 009  010  011  012


1. Isaiah Sees the Saviour  013  014  015  016  017

2. Isaiah and His Contemporaries 018  019  020  021  022

3. The King of Persia as Deliverer  023  024  025   026  027  028  029  030

4. The Symphonic Structure   031  032  033

5. The Real Cause of Exile  034  035  036  037  038


6. The Importance and Uniqueness of Chapter 40 039

7. Isaiah 40  040  041  042  043  044  045  046  047  048  049  050   051  052


8. The Great Confrontation in Isaiah 41  053  054  055  056  057  058

9. The Servant of the LORD Introduced   059  060  061  062

10. The Worldwide Work of the LORD’S Servant: Isaiah 42:1-7  063  064  065  066  067  068  069   070

11. A Picture of Frustration: Isaiah 42:8-25  071  072  073  074  075  076

12. Isaiah 43  077  078  079  080  081  082  083  084

13. Isaiah 44-47  085  086  087  088  089  090  091  092  093  094


14. Isaiah 48  095  096  097  098  099   099  100  101  102

15. The Individualization of the Servant of the LORD: Isaiah 49:1-12  103  104  105  106  107  108  109  110  111  112

16. God Answers Israel’s Cry of Despair: Isaiah 49:14-50:3  113  114  115  116  117

17. The Servant’s Soliloquy: Isaiah 50:4-11  118  119  120  121

18. A Long Passage of Reassurance: Isaiah 51:1-52:12  122  123  124  125  126  127  128

19. The Servant’s Atoning Work: Isaiah 52:13-53:12 129  130  131  132  133  134  135  136  137  138  139  140  141  142  143  144  145  146  147  148  149  150

20. Isaiah 54   151  152  153  154  155   156  157  158  159  160

21. The Gracious Invitation: Isaiah 55:1-56:2  161  162  163  164  165  166  167  168

22. The Universal Outreach: Isaiah 56:3-8  169  170  171

Appendix   172  173  174  175  176  177  178

Notes to Particular Points  179  180  181  182  183

Resources for Study  184   185  186  187  188

Scripture Index  189  190  191

Index of Hebrew Words  192


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If readers have not noticed yet, Veritas Domain has interests in the area of Christian worldview, hermeneutics, Messianic prophecies and Presuppositional apologetics.

In light of that, I thought it was good to let people know about this book offer about a Messianic prophecy.

Chosen People Ministry, a ministry witnessing to the Jews are giving away a book that discuss the Messianic prophecy of Isaiah 53.

You can fill out this form and order a copy by clicking HERE.

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