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Posts Tagged ‘Islam’

Nearly five years ago I refuted a frequent Muslim argument that the Bible in Deuteronomy 18 is a prediction about Muhammad. I looked specifically at the argument as it was presented in A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam.

Among other things the booklet asserted concerning Deuteronomy 18 that:

So, this prophecy refers to Muhammad and not to Jesus, because Muhammad is more like Moses than Jesus.” (Page 34)

I followed up with a second post in which I further established the Christian claim that Deuteronomy 18 is not a prediction about Muhammad since it is instead a predication about Jesus Christ. I did this by noting the parallel between the account of Moses in Exodus with the account of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew.  In our current post I want to further reinforce my point that the Bible in the New Testament presents Jesus as the parallel “New Moses” by looking at further parallels from the first few chapters of the book of Mark.  Readers might want to start with the first two posts I have linked before proceeding onward in order to get the maximum force of the argument.

After reading this ask yourself this question: Doesn’t biblical Messianic prophecies and Messianic typology make you more certain in your faith with the truth of Christianity and also increase your awe with the glory of God manifested through Jesus Christ?

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Here is tonight’s weekend nonfiction book review.

Robert F. Worth. A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS.  New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, April 18th 2017. 272 pp.

4 out of 5

Purchase: Amazon

This is an incredibly insightful book on the Arab Spring and the subsequent rise of extremism and tyranny as the uprising’s aftermath.  The author is a journalist who has spent considerable time in the Middle East both before, during and after the Arab Spring which contributed to the author’s experience and knowledge of things before and after the Arab Spring.  For those who are curious about the Middle East and want to understand more of the current events in that region this book should be on the top of one’s list.

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christian-apologetics-manual-on-islam-cornelius

 

If you are looking for a resource on Christian apologetics concerning Islam we are now hosting a manual on Islam written by a Christian name Cornelius.

It is 220 pages long.

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The other day I saw that Twitter was trending with the hashtag #BoycottDelta.  It was about how supposedly Delta Airlines was racist and bigoted in kicking out a Muslim name Adam Saleh for speaking Arabic.

It’s ironic that the left spends so much time talking about censoring fake news…would be the very ones falling for (you guessed it) fake news.

So to those on the left: If you were guillby trending and think is something on the right, you might be part of the problem.

Here’s David Wood exposing Adam Saleh.  David Wood responded really well and cogently and gives examples to consider just how problematic Adam Saleh’s attempt to get attention is.

Share this with others for the sake of the truth because the truth matters.

 

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A friend sent me this video that shows some good pointers in terms of an evangelist’s interaction with a Muslim.  I appreciated how the evangelist emphasized Gospel terminology such as holiness, justice, the Trinity, resurrection – instead of a sole focus on the apologetic spectrum.  In regards to the Gospel, it is critical to proclaim it because the objective is to reveal to the unbeliever the beauty of Gospel; hoping that they will be saved.

In terms of his apologetics, I appreciated his presuppositional approach.  The Bible is God’s only  transcendent and authoritative document for mankind, as opposed to the Qur’an.   There are many problems that one could address in one’s dialogue with a Muslim, but narrowing it down to a few, as seen in the video, is critical to the Christian/Muslim dialogue.  Some of the major problems are the Qur’an’s misrepresentation of the Trinity, Jesus, and the Bible.  These differences are what separates Muslims and Christians.  Christians and Muslims do not worship the same God.

When it comes to the Bible, the Qur’an says in Surah 5:44, “It was We who revealed the law (to Moses): therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed (as in Islam) to Allah’s will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah’s book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear me, and sell not my signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) Unbelievers” (Yusuf Ali).  Surah 5:46 says, “And in their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the Law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the Law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to those who fear Allah” (Yusuf Ali).

According to those two verses, the Qur’an views the Torah and Injil (Gospel) as the “guidance and light.”  Upon that basis,  no where in those two verses does it state that the Bible is corrupted as some Muslims would indicate.  Since those two verses upholds that the Torah and Injil (Gospel) are God’s Word; anyone who rejects them are disbelievers.  The issue is not with the content of the Torah or the Injil, but the issue is with the interpreters.   Another point to remember is Surah 5:47 which states, “Let the people of the Gospel judge by what Allah hath revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) those who rebel” (Yusuf Ali).  Hence, Surah 5:47 indicates that one is to judge what has been revealed by Allah in the Torah and the Gospel.  And when you look at the Torah and the Gospel, what truths do you see concerning the Trinity, Jesus, etc.?

Well in terms of the Gospels, Jesus claims directly that He claimed deity (John 5:25; 10:36; 11:4; 14:6; 17:1; Mark 14:61-62).  As for the Trinity, the Torah and the Gospel points to the three-in-one (one God, three persons).  For example, see Gen. 1:1-3, 26; Psalm 2:7; John 6:27; 8:58; Mark 2:7; John 24:52.  As for the Qur’an, there have been misrepresentations of the God-head.  For example, the Qur’an views the Trinity to mean the Father, Mother, and Son (Surah 4:166-172).  Clearly what we see is that the Qur’an does not represent the the views of Christianity correctly.  It goes in contradiction to the Torah and the Injil, which the Qur’an views as being sent from God.

This is where the real issue of the conversation boils down to between the Christian and Muslim – either accept the Qur’an’s teachings that is not sent by God Almighty and a book that also contradicts and misrepresents the Bible’s teachings on Jesus and the Trinity, or accept the Holy Bible that reveals the truth about God.  Much more can be said about this topic.  But for now, I would encourage you to watch the video below and to pray for the Muslim people that we love dearly.

To access the video, please see this link: 

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Crisis Bernard Lewis

 Purchase: Amazon

Authored by the famous Princeton Orientalist Bernard Lewis. I was looking forward to the book to see if Lewis might have had some different insight about Islam and radicalization of Islam that would be food for thought for me to nuance or even perhaps make me reconsider the specifics of my understanding of Islam. I don’t think this book gave me anything significantly new concerning the religion of Islam itself. Actually it seem to me that the book ended up being more about the geo-political realities of the Islamic Middle East rather than a deeper look into Islam or radical Islam itself.

THE GOOD
Perhaps the one point in the book that struck me was how one needs to distinguish very carefully between Muslims who believe in possible peace with the West and those who say “peace” but really only want a temporary truce with nonmuslims in the long struggle of Islamic domination. The implication of this means that one ought to be cautious of assuming that bridge building and seeking understanding alone will resolve the present crisis. Against our intuition, Lewis argues that Iranian hostage crisis was the result of improved relationship and not bad relations. Things was going too GOOD–hence radicals had to resort to means to ensure hostility continues.

I think the book also made a good point that the West’s policy of supporting a certain government in the Middle East and its failure to shore up any aid for that regime when it faces rising internal threats has encouraged Radicals. Think of Iran. Lewis argues that the perception of most Muslims in the Middle East is that this is an indication of how the West installs puppet government but when push comes to shove the West is weak and will betray their own puppets. This in turn make the US seem unhonorable and encourages those engage in Islamic insurgency to believe there is hope in their activities against present Middle Eastern government.

The book does a masterful job filling in some of the blank spot I had in understanding the West’s relationship with the Middle East during the Cold War. Lewis explains why most Arab state fail to see the Soviets as a threat even though Russia has been a threat historically to Muslim territories and oppressive to Muslims during the Communist era. Lewis points out that the limited Russian influence and colonialism among Arabian territory reduces the likelihood of being demonized as immediate Western extension into the Middle East. Lewis noted the great irony of how the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was even supported by Muslim countries who were allied with the Soviets, and these countries went so far as even voting against UN condemnation of the invasion and speaking favorably of the invasion!

THE BAD
At times he even seem to handle Islam with kids gloves; for instance, while the book does discuss about the Crusades there is no account of how Islam originally spread to historically Christian land prior to the Crusades that made them “Islamic lands” in the first place. While Lewis noted that Islamic law makes nonbelievers pay the jizya, an Islamic tax, he nevertheless said that it’s better to be a second class citizen than not being a citizen at all in some nations in the West. This strikes me as odd since I think the concept of “second class citizen” versus “no citizenship” is rather anachronistic and Lewis doesn’t go into details as to what he means nor does he give any specific example from the West.

This particular work was published in 2003 and considering that I read this book in 2013, I would say the last decade allows us to examine whether some of his point hold water. For instance, Lewis argues that the United States has been relatively successful in their influence of Middle East compare to other region which has resulted in failed military intervention and other disaster. One must remember the book was written prior to the invasion of Iraq and our involvement in Afghanistan was just on it’s second year. Afghanistan’s future remain uncertain.

Lewis presents the Middle Eastern narrative of how the US have low standards in the Middle East of tolerating and working with tyrannical regimes in contrast to other regions of the world; I don’t think that’s historically true (think of Vietnam, think of Africa). But if the West stop working with current Middle Eastern government means better relationship with the people of Middle East as whole? We must further ask: with the US support of Arab Springs does it show that being anti-establishment and pro-revolution actually improve public perception or actual relationship between the Islamic world and the US? And more importantly, with policies of ousting the established powers does it actually improve the rights of the people? Does it prevent terrorism from being exported to the West? Not necessarily, and in 2013 it’s hard to believe Lewis’ perspective. Lewis even talks about in the book of how in 1992 Syria violently put down a rebellion and how the West paid no attention to it. Ironically, twenty years later the West does pay attention to it–and support the rebellion whose identity is, well you guessed it, tied to Islamic extremists.

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James White

Two days ago I analyzed a frequent Muslim apologist’s argument that the Bible predicted the coming of Muhammad.  I thought it was timely that James White, a Christian apologists who the last few years have spent a lot of time and effort in researching, lecturing and debating on Islam, recently delivered a talk at Reformed Theological Seminary on the topic of why Muslims reject the Gospel.  I am encouraged to see an apologist who has the combination of original language exegetical skills, Presuppositional apologetics and Reformed theology addressing the cults and now Islam.

His book on Islam is coming out sometime this year.

Yesterday, EvangelZ also posted a book review on Piper’s response to the New Perspective on Paul.  James White earlier this month has also debated N.T. Wright, the audio which is made available here.

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Brief_Illustrated_Guide_To_Understanding_Islam

INTRODUCTION

There is a popular colorful pamphlet arguing for Islam titled, A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam.  Not too long ago I looked into one of the evidences it gave for Islam here, while for this post I want to consider another argument the booklet presents for Islam in which the author(s) claims that the Bible made a prophecy pointing to Muhammad.  At the outset, I want the readers to know that this discussion cannot be divorced from one’s methodology of apologetics and I think the best method of Christian apologetics interacting with Islam is to begin with the Bible as the authoritative and infallible Word of God.  No doubt Muslims will object, saying the Bible has been corrupted while some Christians will dismiss this strategy as ineffective in light of the predictable Muslim reaction to such an apologetic.  However, as I have argued here on this blog, the Muslim is not permitted to dismiss the Bible as corrupt and no longer authoritative because the Quran’s teaching is contrary to this, expounding explicitly the view and appealing directly to the Bible as authoritative and a reliable text.  Thus, the benefit of this methodology is three-fold: (1) it makes the Muslim conscious of the issue of authority, and allow the Christian to quickly press them on the internal tension within the Muslim’s own worldview concerning the Bible, (2) while the Christian continues to have the Word of God as his foundation even in his apologetic (3) and also exposes the Muslims to the Bible, God’s Word, which does it’s work among the hearers and readers. (Note: This approach would be consistent with the apologetic methodology of Presuppositional apologetics.)  Of course, when the Muslims read the Bible they will read it as a Muslim and might be inclined to see it pointing to and validating Islam which require a Christian to look more closely at their own Scriptures concerning these claims.

THE PROPHET AN ISHMAELITE?

Such a claim for the Bible as evidence for Islam appears on page 33 of the booklet: “The Biblical prophecies on the advent of the Prophet Muhammad  are evidence of the truth of Islam for people who believe in the Bible.”  It then quoted Deuteronomy 18:18-19 as evidence.  Whereas Muslims believe Deuteronomy 18:18-19 predicts the coming of Muhammad, Christians believe that that this passage was fulfilled by Jesus.  Deuteronomy 18:18-19 as quoted from the New American Standard Bible states,

 I will raise up a prophet from among their [l]countrymen like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him. 19 It shall come about that whoever will not listen to My words which he shall speak in My name, I Myself will require it of him.

The book then tries to extrapolate from Deuteronomy 18 that this coming prophet

must have the following three characteristics:
1) That he will be like Moses.
2) That he will come from the brothers of the Israelites, i.e. the
Ishmaelites.
3) That God will put His words into the mouth of this prophet
and that he will declare what God commands him.

Of these three characteristics, the second seems to be the most problematic: that the prophet must be an Ishmaelites (which Muslims believe Muhammad was a descendant of).  Ishmael was the son of Abraham through his wife’s slave Hagar, as the Bible in Genesis 16 records.  Since the nation of Israel was a descendant of Abraham through the line of Issac, one might say that Issac and Ishmael were “half-brothers.”  So the Muslim argument here is that Deuteronomy 18 teaches this “Prophet” will be coming from their “brothers,” that is from the Ishmaelites, and since they say Muhammad is a descendant of Ishamel, he must be the Prophet predicted.

The Muslim no doubt will object to the NASB translation of “countrymen” in verse 18 and prefer it to be translated “brothers” which they do have a point.  The Hebrew word that the NASB translated as “countrymen” is the Hebrew word אֲחֵיהֶם.  Literally, אֲחֵיהֶם is from the Hebrew word meaning “brother” in the plural form with a third person masculine plural suffix that’s functioning possessively  thus a woodenly literal translation would be “their brother.”  The NASB here interprets “their brother” to refer to fellow Israelites, hence the translation of “countrymen.”  Just because the Hebrew word translated literally would be “their brothers” does not necessarily entail this is a prophecy for Muhammad however, since “brothers” can possibly refer to Ishmaelites or the Israelites themselves.  Determining the referent must be done in light of the consideration of the context of Deuteronomy 18, which suggests that Moses here has in mind that the Prophet will be Jewish rather than an Ishmaelite.  There are three reasons that opposes the interpretation that Deuteronomy 18 is talking about an Ishmaelite.

The first reason against the Muslim interpretation is the fact that the context of Deuteronomy 18 has no reference to Ishmaelites.  There is nothing explicit (“Ishmaelites” or “Ishmael”) or implicit (“Hagar,” etc).  The Muslim then has no warrant to suddenly assume “their brothers” to refer to Ishmaelites.  No doubt the Muslim might say this is an argument from silence for the view that Deuteronomy 18 refers to a Jew, but here I am not using an argument for silence to prove that Deuteronomy 18 is referring to a Prophet of Jewish descendant  but I am only showing that the Muslim has no justification to read into the text that an Ishmaelite is the referent.  The other two points below is my basis for interpreting the Prophet of Deuteronomy 18 must be a descendant of Israel.

The second reason against the Muslim “Ishmaelite” interpretation is within Deuteronomy 18:18 itself.  The Hebrew word following אֲחֵיהֶם (“their brothers”) is כָּמֹוךָ, which has a preposition of comparison (“like, as”) coupled with a second person plural suffix.  The second person plural refers to those whom Moses is addressing, which specifically were the second Generation Israelites that left Egypt and waiting to enter into the Promise Land.  This Prophet will be as an Israelite, a Jew, and not an Ishmaelite.

The third reason against the Muslim “Ishmaelite” interpretation is from the contextual flow leading up to Deuteronomy 18:18-19.  Deuteronomy 18:15 is similar to Deuteronomy 18:18-19:

The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your [j]countrymen, you shall listen to him.

And like Deuteronomy 18:18, the NASB translation of “your countrymen” here is the same Hebrew word in verse 18 that refers to “brothers.”  Verse 15 narrows and specify whom Moses meant by “brothers” when he said “from among you.”  The phrase “from among you” in Hebrew is מִקִּרְבְּךָ, which is a construction of a preposition indicating source coupled with the noun קרב and second person plural suffix.  According to Holladay’s concise Hebrew lexicon, the noun קרב always refer to something internal as opposed to outside or external in all it’s lexical range of meaning whether it refers to the inward nonphysical parts of a person (compare Genesis 18:12, 1 Kings 17:21, Isaiah 19:3, Jeremiah 4:16), the inner physical body (compare Genesis 41:21), inner part of a city (Genesis 18:22), or sacrificial animal (Exodus 12:9).  This is also true when it is referring to people (for example, Exodus 34:12, 1 Samuel 16:13).  When the preposition מִ appears before the nounקרב, it has the idea of “from among” (for example, compare Numbers 14:13), that is, internal from within one’s group.  The source of the Prophet’s origin is indicated by the second person plural suffix, which again refers to the second generation Israelites that left Egypt waiting to enter into the Promise Land.  Thus, this Prophet can only be from among the Jews and not some external group of non-Jews.  Though it is not visible in our English translation, in Hebrew the construct מִקִּרְבְּךָ (“from among you”) is even nuanced, appearing before the phrase “like me,” or “from your countrymen.”  That is, the author Moses was emphasizing to his readers so that they won’t miss the truth that this Prophet will be from among their own kin, effectively ruling out Muhammad as a candidate for fulfillment of Deuteronomy 18.

A DENIAL OF JESUS’ FULFILLMENT OF DEUTERONOMY 18

As demonstrated above, Muhammad cannot be the fulfillment of Deuteronomy 18 because he is not a Jew.  The other reason why Deuteronomy 18 cannot point to Muhammad is because Jesus fulfills the prophecy in Deuteronomy as “The Prophet.”  Of course, most Jews would disagree but Christians following the New Testament are obligated to believe this, since the New Testament teaches that Jesus is the Prophet of Deuteronomy 18.  Likewise, Muslims are also obligated to believe this since the Quran teaches that the Bible  including the New Testament is authoritative and not corrupted (as it is established elsewhere in our blog).  Muslim however reject this conclusion, instead arguing against Jesus as the fulfillment of Deuteronomy 18.  On page 34 of A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam, the author (s) argued

If we look in a Bible with cross-references, we will find in the marginal notes where the words “the Prophet” occur in John 1:21, that these words refer to the prophecy of Deuteronomy 18:15 and 18:18.1  We conclude from this that Jesus Christ is not the prophet mentioned in Deuteronomy 18:18.

The footnote in the book indicates that the source used for cross-referencing John 1:21 is from the NIV Study Bible.  Reading John 1:21, one wonders how the book can conclude from this passage that Jesus is not the Prophet of Deuteronomy 18:18.  For context, John 1:19-23 states:

19 This is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent to him priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, “Who are you?” 20 And he confessed and did not deny, but confessed, “I am not [q]the Christ.”21 They asked him, “What then? Are you Elijah?” And he *said, “I am not.” “Are you the Prophet?” And he answered, “No.” 22 Then they said to him, “Who are you, so that we may give an answer to those who sent us? What do you say about yourself?” 23 He said, “I am a voice of one crying in the wilderness, ‘Make straight the way of the Lord,’ as Isaiah the prophet said.”

Note that this passage records the conversation John the Baptist had with the Jewish priests and Levites from Jerusalem (v.19).  From verses 19 to 23, the Jewish religious leaders were trying to figure out who John was, by first asking him “Who are you?” (v. 19), then specifically whether he was Elijah (v.21a), or the Prophet (v. 21b).  In both instances, John denies being Elijah and “the Prophet” (v.21), with the Prophet being an allusion to Deuteronomy 18.  Instead, John identifies himself as the one predicted in Isaiah 40:3 as preparing the way for the Messiah.  Yet how could the booklet then “conclude from this that Jesus Christ is not the prophet mentioned in Deuteronomy 18:18” when the passage record John the Baptist denial of himself being the Prophet?  John the Baptist’s denial of being the Prophet is not the same thing as him denying Jesus as the Prophet of Deuteronomy and neither is it the equivalent of Jesus denying Himself to be the prophet.  This is rather fuzzy thinking on the part of the author (s) of A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam where once again there is a confusion of referent nor does the conclusion follow from the text.

JESUS IS THE PROPHET OF DEUTERONOMY 18

The New Testament makes it clear that Jesus is the one who fulfilled Deuteronomy 18.  If the New Testament does teach this, as re-iterated before, the Muslim is obligated to believe this because of the Quran’s bibliology.  Any Muslim who deny Jesus as the Prophet of Deuteronomy 18 faces the internal tension between the Muslim’s interpretation of Deuteronomy 18 and the Quran’s teaching concerning the truth of the Bible.

In a sermon that Peter preached to the Jews during the early days of the church after Pentecost, Peter paraphrased Deuteronomy 18:15, 18-19 in Acts 3:22-23:

Moses said, ‘The Lord God will raise up for you a prophet [k]like me from your brethren; to Him you shall give heed to everything He says to you. 23 And it will be that every soul that does not heed that prophet shall be utterly destroyed from among the people.’

The contextual flow of Peter’s sermon is the preaching of Jesus Christ to the Jewish people (v. 12-21). For instance, right before verses 22-23, Peter states in verses 19-21:

Therefore repent and return, so that your sins may be wiped away, in order that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord; 20 and that He may send Jesus, the [i]Christ appointed for you, 21 whom heaven must receive until the [j]period of restoration of all things about which God spoke by the mouth of His holy prophets from ancient time.

For the Muslim critic, Peter’s inspired message from God cannot be taken to refer to Muhammad as the referent of the Prophet since verse 24 makes it clear the timing of everything he is talking about (the Suffering Servant, the Prophet to be listened to, etc) were taking place “these days” (that is during the time of Peter’s contemporary) rather than six hundred years later (Muhammad and Islam):

And likewise, all the prophets who have spoken, from Samuel and his successors onward, also announced these days.

What other event could be more central to Peter and the early believers than the suffering and death of Jesus Christ which Peter keeps on talking about in chapter 3?  It is important to remember that Peter’s citation of Deuteronomy 18 is situated in a context dominated by the centrality of Christ.  Note again how verse 24 mentioned that “all the prophets who have spoken…announced these days.”  This is similar to how Peter have said earlier in verse 18 that “all the prophets” were making prophecies in the Old Testament that Jesus has now fulfilled:

 But the things which God announced beforehand by the mouth of all the prophets, that His Christ would suffer, He has thus fulfilled.

Because Jesus have fulfilled these Messianic prophecies, Peter assigns Messianic titles to Jesus such as “His Servants” (v.13 and 26, an allusion to Isaiah’s prophecies), “the Holy and Righteous One” (v. 14), “Prince of life” (v.15) and Christ (v.18 and 20).  In such a context the reference to “that Prophet” of Deuteronomy 18 is just one more Messianic Old Testament titles that Peter is saying Jesus fulfilled.

If Jesus is the Prophet of Deuteronomy 18, verse 15 of that chapter makes it clear that He must be listened to, which Acts 3:23 paraphrases.  That’s exactly what God Himself announces during the Transfiguration.  The same author of Acts, the Physician Luke, also recorded in Luke 9:35 echoes of Deuteronomy 18:15, when God declared that Jesus is the one whom people must listen to:

Then a voice came out of the cloud, saying, “This is My Son, My Chosen One; listen to Him!”

Thus, Jesus is the Prophet of Deuteronomy 18 according to Acts 3.  Since Jesus is the referent in Deuteronomy 18, this does not give room for Muhammad to fulfill this prophecy especially since Muhammad is not Jewish, a criteria of Deuteronomy 18.  Muslims should read the Holy Bible (both Old and New Testament) and come to know Jesus as their Lord God, and Savior of their sins.  Have faith (trust) in Jesus and repent (turn away) from your sins.  Trust in Jesus as your Prophet, Priest and King.

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GO TO PART 3

Continuing with our series on the attack against traditional authorship of the Gospels by some Muslims, here is the last part of the series that will be focused on the Gospel of John.

Arguments for Traditional Authorship of John

Here is what Irenaeus says in the first century concerning John being the author,

John, the disciple of the Lord…expresses himself thus: ‘In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God; the same was in the beginning with God’” (Irenaeus, Against Heresies 1.8 [ANF, 1:674]).[1]

On another note, Irenaeus (c. A.D. 180) is the first to clearly say that John the apostle wrote the Gospel of John and that he published it too at Ephesus where John resided.[2]

As for Turtullian, here is what he says in second century about the Gospel of John and the other Gospel writers,

The same authority of the apostolic churches will afford evidence to the other Gospels also, which we possess equally through their means, and according to their usage—I mean the Gospels of John and Matthew—whilst that which Mark published may be affirmed to be Peter’s whose interpreter Mark was.  For even Luke’s form of the Gospel men usually ascribe to Paul (Tertullian, The Five Books Against Marcion 4.5 [ANF, 3:657]).[3]

Augustine says this in the fourth century concerning John and the apostles

Certain of them also—namely, Matthew and John—gave to the world, in their respective books, a written account of all those matters which it seemed needful to commit to writing concerning Him” (Augustine, The Harmony of the Gospels 1.1.1 [NPNF, 6:160]).[4]

Augustine also said this about Apostle John,

The most eminent of the four evangelists” (Augustine, The Harmony of the Gospels 2.6.18 [NPNF, 6.235]).[5]

In light of the external evidence that have been provided regarding the authorship of the fourth Gospel being from John himself, we too must cover the internal evidence in order to effectively rebuttal the attacks from rationalists like F.C. Baur who argued that the fourth Gospel was not written until A.D. 160.  If it was written during that time as suggested by F.C. Baur, then that means John could not be the author.  John wrote earlier than that.  Since he wrote earlier, evidence heavily favors John as the author of the fourth Gospel.[6]

Sadly, some Muslim apologists will implement the sources that runs parallel to liberal scholars in order to justify their reasoning that there is no evidence to know who wrote the Gospels.  Their method, which is not really different from rationalists who implement the higher-criticism method, is an attempt to contaminate the authenticity and historicity of the Gospels.  The implication is that if one cannot have evidence for who the authors are, then how can Christianity account for reliability in authenticity?  Also just a footnote—not only does the discovery of a papyrus fragment (P52) of the Gospel of John in the collection of the John Rylands Library (“dated at least at A.D. 150 and perhaps as early as A.D. 130”), demolished the liberal and rationalists’ view, because papyrus fragment (P52) points to the idea that the Gospel of John is easily pushed back into at least the first century when the Apostle John was alive.

On another note, internal evidence, which stands on its own feet, makes it evident that John clearly wrote the Gospels even though the author does not identify himself by saying, “I, John, wrote the this book,” etc.[7] .  The Gospel of John is not like the Book of Hebrews, whereas the author does not disclose his identity, but John, like the other three Gospel writers, makes it evident that he wrote it .  External evidence proves it and internal evidence proves it too.

In light of internal evidence, the writer claims to be an eyewitness in these following passages: John 1:14; 19:35; 21:24-25.[8]  Other internal evidence would be his implementation of an accurate knowledge of Jewish customs and Palestinian topography before Jerusalem’s destruction in A.D. 70; and also his implementation of vivid details as an eyewitness of Jesus ministry (2:6; 6:19; 21:8).[9]  Clearly his style of writing was Semitic because John was a Jew.[10]  Another potent internal evidence would be the author’s reference to himself as the “disciple whom Jesus loved” as indicated in John 21:20, 24.  By process of elimination—in relation to the phrase the “disciple whom Jesus loved,” James could not be the author because he was martyred early in church history (Acts 12:1-5); and it cannot be Peter as indicated in John 13:23 and 21:7.[11]  Cleary, by process of elimination, it had to be John, the son of Zebedee, even though he is not identified by name in the Gospel of John.[12]

CONCLUSION

Some maybe asking by now, why does it matter who wrote the Gospels? Instead some propose that we should focus our concerted efforts on defending the reliability of Gospel rather than discussing traditional authorship.  However, knowing who wrote the Gospels, is linked to the reliability of the Gospels.  To deny authorship, poses problems because it opens up the door for a discussion of dating and the use of the higher-criticism method.

In response, I believe that quoting Professor Gary W. Derickson, a professor at Western Baptist College at Salem, Oregon best describes the danger of anti-traditional authorship view.  He eloquently answers the question  by saying,

The church fathers were unanimous in naming Matthew as the first Gospel to be written and in identifying the apostle Matthew as its author. Their testimony indicates that it was the dominant Gospel in the early church and contains nothing about any literary dependence between writers of the two Gospels. The issue of apostolic authorship is at stake in one’s viewpoint on this matter. If at any point a Gospel writer, be it pseudo-Matthew or any other Gospel writer, has embellished eyewitness testimony to promote his own theological viewpoint, that is a violation of biblical inerrancy that lies outside the boundary of evangelicalism.” [13]

Clearly, there are many pertinent points Professor Derickson stated, but what hits the nail on the head, is the notion of one who denies traditional authorship, is one who has an agenda in promoting one’s own theological agenda (i.e. undermine the supernatural, inerrancy, destroy the historical reliability of Christianity, etc.); and clearly, it is a “violation of biblical inerrancy that lies outside the boundary of evangelicalism.”

Denial of the traditional authorship of the Gospels poses great concern because one of the major key issues that is at stake is that of apostolic authority.[14]  While some may say it is not important to know who wrote the Gospels or not, it does matter because men like Peter, Paul, and John all appealed to apostolic authority.[15]  For example, John says that he saw, heard and handled the embodied Eternal Life (1 John 1:1-4).[16]  Not only was John an apostle, but he witnessed and experience what Christ did.  As for Peter, the validity of his writings grew out from his eyewitness relationship with Jesus Christ when he was on earth as well (2 Peter 1:16-18); and Paul based his authority on direct revelation that he received from Christ (Galatians 1:11-12).[17].

The legitimate recognition of Peter and Paul as the apostles of Christ is a very fundamental point at stake because the non-apostolic Gospels such as the Gospel of Mark and Luke as well as the epistles of the NT all had apostolic connections that resulted in their acceptance by the early church.[18]  To say that we do not know who wrote the Gospels would dismember the apostolic connection between the non-apostolic Gospels and the epistles of the NT that all had connections to the apostles.

Since this series is mainly about the traditional authorship of the Gospels, it is important to emphasize that denying traditional authorship opens up the door to rationalism and speculation.  However, as argued already throughout this series, rationalism and speculation of who wrote the Gospels, can be avoided because internal and external evidence supports the orthodox understanding of authorship.  The church fathers relied on the evidence of the apostles and the evidence from eyewitness accounts.  In the context of this series, the early fathers and the early church recognized the four authors of the Gospels.  To deny them, opens up the door to accepting frauds who were never apostles and those who never had apostolic connections.

As Christians, we must be careful with the critics’ attack against the authorship of the Gospels.  Their attacks against traditional authorship of the Gospels are a smokescreen for their humanistic endeavors against the reliability of the inspired, supernatural Gospels governed by God.

To attack the traditional authorship of the Gospels is an attack not only in the face of external evidence, but also internal evidence.  To attack external evidence is to jeopardize patristic evidences from historical people who were closer to the times of Jesus than we are; and to attack internal evidence is to undermine inerrancy and the supernatural Words of God, in favor for the idolatry of rationalism.

For the Muslim apologists or any other critique against the Gospels, his or her attacks are attempts in justifying their reasonings that Christianity is an unreliable faith that cannot account for truth.  On another note, it is also opportune to keep in mind that if a Muslim was to ever attack Christians for using patristic evidence to establish the traditional authorship of the Gospel, it would be decorous to point out to Muslims that they too must also appeal outside the Quran to establish their major aspect of the Islamic faith such as the story of Muhammad, and the Muslim account of the origin of the Qur’an.  If they are skeptical of the Bible, we too must be skeptical of the Qur’an and the Hadith.    And if they say that Christianity cannot account for truth because we do not know who wrote the Gospels, then they need to provide answers to verses from the Qu’ran that upholds the Gospel and other books of the Bible (Surah 2:59; 2:79; 2:106; 3:78; 4:136; 4:46; 4:157; 5:13; 5:46-48; 29:46; 53:36; etc.).  Even in their own books, the Qu’ran upheld and upholds the Holy Bible.  Please see SLIMJIM’s work explaining the Qu’ran’s support of the Bible: Are there verses in the Quran that shows the Bible’s corruption? Part 1: IntroductionAre there verses in the Quran that shows the Bible’s corruption? Part 2: Surah 4:46Are there verses in the Quran that shows the Bible’s corruption? Part 3: Surah 5:13Are there verses in the Quran that shows the Bible’s corruption? Part 4: Surah 2:79Are there verses in the Quran that shows the Bible’s corruption? Part 5: Surah 4:157

Moreover, here are some important quotes from the early church fathers that I would like to share that substantiates the claim of traditional authorship.  The first one is from Justyn Martyr (second century) regarding his acceptance of traditional authorship of the Gospels,

For the apostles, in the memoirs composed by them which are called Gospels, have thus delivered unto us what was enjoined upon them” (The First Apology of Justin 6 [ANF, 1:185]).”[19]

Tertullian in the second century said,

The evangelical Testament has apostles for its authors…since there are apostolic men also, they are not alone, but appear with the apostles and after apostles” (The Five Books Against Marcion [ANF, 3:347]).

As for Irenaeus during the second century, he said,

The opinion of the apostles, therefore, and of those (Mark and Luke) who learned from their words, concerning God, has been made manifest” (Against Heresies 3.15.3 [ANF, 1:440]).[20]

It is my prayer and hope that Christians all over the globe will not be staggered by the attacks of opponents of traditional authorship of the Gospels.  As Christians, we must have confidence on the writings of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.  They were men who were used as instruments of God to write.  These were men moved by the Holy Spirit and men who wrote for the glory of God.  2 Peter 1:20-21 points this truth out,

But know this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture is a matter of one’s own interpretation, for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.”

These were not men who wanted to write for their own interests.  In terms of what they wrote which is inspired, here is what 2 Timothy 3:16-17 says,

All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; so that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work.”

Paul clearly points out in the second letter to Timothy that God’s Words are inspired (θεόπνευστος), meaning God-breathed.  Since God’s Word’s are God-breathed, we need to be bold in our defense and proclamation of God’s truth.  No matter what methods opponents use to attack traditional authorship in order lacerate away the supernatural origin and historical reliability of the Bible, we must hold the fort and not be staggered.

In closing, here is a wise saying from Dr. Robert Thomas regarding the battle Christians face from the book titled, The Jesus Crisis: The Inroads of Historical Criticism into Evangelical Scholarship.

The Jesus crisis should be a source of serious concern for the Christian church.  God will somehow overcome the crisis.  His Word will remain intact for He is sovereign and omnipotent.  His truth will prevail.  He will not allow gospel truth to disappear.  But He will carry out His will as the church, Christ’s bride, reasserts the integrity of His Word.  Believers should exert themselves to alleviate the crisis.  Believers do so by maintaining an uncompromising stand on what He has written and not questioning its accuracy at any point.  Hopefully, the church will do so immediately by raising her voice against the enemy who already has his foot in the door and is seeking to pry it wide open.[21]

Christians who take the issue of historical-criticism or rationalism lightly should be seriously concerned because it is a tool used by the enemy to undermine biblical inerrancy and the supernatural reliability of Scripture.  The rationalists along with their presuppositions towards the Holy Bible are attackers of our omnipotent and sovereign God.  But they can’t win and they will never prevail in the war.

Because souls are at stake, God will never allow His Word to be in a state of confusion or in a state where the Word is not able to withstand hostile enemies of His Word.  As soldiers of Christ, we must be maintaining our stance as Dr. Thomas said:

By maintaining an uncompromising stand on what He has written and not questioning its accuracy at any point.”

If we compromise, we open up the doors for people to attack, which will cause doubts on the accuracy of God’s Word.  And those who are feeble and gullible will fall prey to the rationalists’ instruments.

In light of all the arguments made so far, I believe that traditional authorship glorifies God because they were the people authorized to write on God’s behalf.  If people try to unauthorize them, they will have a difficult time accounting for consistency, truth, and reality.  And that will not glorify God.

Bibliography 

Abbott-Smith, George. A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament. 3d ed. Edinburgh, England: T. & T. Clark, 1950.

Derickson, Gary W.  “Matthean Priority/Authorship and Evangelicalism’s Boundary.”  The Masters Seminary Journal 14, no. 1 (Spring,  2003): 87–103.

Linnemann, Eta. Historical Criticism of the Bible Reflections of a Bultmannian Turned Evangelical: Methodology or Ideology. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2001.

Pentecost, Dwight J. The Words. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1891.

Reymond, Robert L. A New Systematic Theology of the Christian. 2nd ed. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson, 1998.

Thompson, Keith. “Who Wrote the Gospels? Internal and External Arguments For Traditional Authorship.” Answering Islam: A Christian-Muslim Dialog. http://answering-islam.org/authors/thompson/gospel_authorship.html (accessed May 31, 2012).

Thomas, Robert L. Charts of the Gospels and the Life of Christ. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2000.

Thomas, Robert L., and F. David Farnell. The Jesus Crisis: The Inroads of Historical Criticism into Evangelical Scholarship. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1998.

Thomas, Robert L., and Stanley N. Gundry. The NIV/NASB Harmony of the Gospels. Peaboy, Massachusetts: Print Press, 2003.


[1] Robert L. Thomas, Charts of the Gospels and the Life of Christ (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2000), 79.

[2] Robert L. Thomas and Stanley N. Gundry, The NIV/NASB Harmony of the Gospels (Peaboy, MA: Print Press, 2003), 299.

[3] Robert L. Thomas, Charts of the Gospels and the Life of Christ, 78.

[4] Ibid, 80.

[5] Ibid, 80.

[6] Robert L. Thomas and Stanley N. Gundry, The NIV/NASB Harmony of the Gospels, 299.

[7] Ibid, 299-300.

[8]Ibid, 300.

[9]Ibid, 300.

[10]Ibid, 300.

[11] Ibid, 300.

[12] Ibid, 300.

[13] Gary W. Derickson, “Matthean Priority/Authorship and Evangelicalism’s Boundary,” The Masters Seminary Journal 14, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 87.

[14] Ibid, 100.

[15] Ibid, 100.

[16] Ibid, 100.

[17] Ibid, 100.

[18] Ibid, 100.

[19] Robert L. Thomas, Charts of the Gospels and the Life of Christ, 78.

[20] Ibid, 79.

[21] Robert L. Thomas and David F. Farnell, “The Jesus Crisis: The Inroads of Historical Criticism into Evangelical Scholarship,” 383.

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Last post I did was titled, Muslim Writers’ Attack Against Traditional Authorship of the Gospels, Matthew and Mark: Part 2.  In this post, I will cover Luke and Acts.  Some of you maybe asking why are you adding Acts? since Acts is not part of the Gospel.  As I mentioned in my last post, I said,

I think it is important to cover it because Acts is associated with Luke since he wrote not just the Gospel of Luke, but the Book of Acts too.

Arguments for Traditional Authorship of Luke and Acts

As for the external evidence, here is what Irenaeus has to say about Luke,

Thus did the apostles simply, and without respect of persons, deliver to all what they had themselves learned from the Lord.  Thus also does Luke, without respect of persons, deliver to us what he had learned from them, as he has himself testified, saying, ‘Even as they delivered them to us, who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the Word.’”[1]

In regards to Luke, Turtullian says this about Luke the physician and the disciple who learned from Paul and the apostles.

Luke, however, was not an apostle, but only an apostolic man; not a master, but a disciple, and so inferior to a master—at least as far subsequent to him as the apostle whom he followed (and that, no doubt, was Paul) was subsequent to the others….Inasmuch, therefore, as the enlightener of St. Luke himself desired the authority of his predecessors for both his own faith and preaching, how much more may not I require for Luke’s Gospel that which was necessary for the Gospel of his master.

In terms of the internal evidence, Luke 1:3 and Acts 1:1 point out the same person.  Luke 1:3 says,

It seemed fitting for me as well, having investigated everything carefully from the beginning, to write it out for you in consecutive order, most excellent Theophilus.”

Acts 1:1 says,

The first account I composed, Theophilus, about all that Jesus began to do and teach.”

As you can see, both verses are referring to the same person who is no other than Theophilus, who is no other than Luke.  This name Theophilus is probably a reference of him being a chief magistrate in Greece or in Asia Minor.[2]  Although the Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts have similar language, style, and interests, there is more to show in regards to how Luke and Acts are written by the same author.[3]  To accomplish that, we must venture into the “we” passages, which are passages in Acts, where the author includes himself as an eyewitnesses of the events concerning the disciples’ affairs after the resurrection of Christ.[4]  For example, Acts 16:10-17 indicates that Luke was involved in a missionary journey with Paul, Timothy, and Silas to Macedonia, by using the first person plural (“we”).[5]  Here is an example of how the first person plural is used from that passage,

We sought to go into Macedonia, concluding that God had called us to preach the gospel to them.”

Other verses you can refer to that implements the first person plural with Luke being involved is: Acts 20:5-16; 21:1-18; 27:1-28 and 28:16.

Second internal evidence to consider is the identification of being a physician (Colossians 4:14).[6]   The Gospel of Luke, which is written by the physician Luke, reveals an astute interest in precise medical terminology when compared to the other Gospels.  For example, Matthew 8:14 and Mark 1:30 implements the use of πυρέσσω (“fever”) in relation to Peter’s mother-in-law, but Luke uses a slightly different term: πυρετῷ μεγάλῳ (“high fever”).[7]  On another note, instead of using the term λεπρὸς (“leper”) as Matthew 8:2 does, Luke 5:12 uses πλήρης λέπρας (“full of leprosy”).[8]  The specific medical terminology used by Luke clearly fits Luke’s medical profession.

Third main factor to consider is Luke’s carefulness to detail.  For example, Luke 1:1-3 says,

Inasmuch as many have undertaken to compile an account of the things accomplished among us, just as they were handed down to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word, it seemed fitting for me as well, having investigated everything carefully from the beginning, to write it out for you in consecutive order, most excellent Theophilus.”

Clearly, as a physician, Luke was careful with detail because he wanted to record what was accurate.


[1] Robert L. Thomas and David F. Farnell, “The Jesus Crisis: The Inroads of Historical Criticism into Evangelical Scholarship,” 65.

[2] Keith Thompson, “Who Wrote the Gospels? Internal and External Arguments For Traditional Authorship,” Answering Islam: A Christian-Muslim Dialog, 7.

[3] Ibid, 7.

[4] Ibid, 7.

[5] Ibid, 8.

[6] Ibid, 8.

[7] Ibid, 8.

[8] Ibid, 8.

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Aiya Altemeemi, aged 19, suffered a punishment last February that none of her schoolmates in Phoenix, Arizona could have imagined: her father cut her throat with a kitchen knife. When she escaped to her bedroom, her mother and sisters followed, tied her to her bed, taped her mouth shut, and beat her. And this was not the first time: previously, when Aiya had expressed reservations about marrying the 38-year-old man her parents had chosen as her husband, her mother had shackled her to the same bed and burned her with a hot spoon. Despite such treatment, Aiya, who arrived from Iraq with her parents around three years ago, soon after announced to stunned reporters that she understood why her mother had assaulted her: “Because I talked to a boy, and that is not normal with her, that is not my religion. My religion says no talking to boys.”

Continue to read.

The young girl’s mother said its normal to do so.

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List of Islamic Terror Attacks For the Past 30 Days

Date Country City Killed Injured Description
2012.07.19 Nigeria Maiduguri 2 0 Two traders at a market are murdered in cold blood by Boko Haram gunmen.
2012.07.19 Pakistan Karachi 1 0 A 52-year-old leader of the Ahamdi minority is shot in the head by defenders of mainstream Islam.
2012.07.19 Egypt Sheikh Zweid 2 0 Bearded Islamists in robes machine-gun two local soldiers along a city street at point blank range.
2012.07.19 Afghanistan Faryab 8 6 A woman and child are among eight civilians ripped to pieces by a Taliban bomb.
2012.07.18 Pakistan Spai 14 0 Eight members of one family, including women and young children, are disassembled along with six others by a bus bomb attack on Shia pilgrims deemed ‘enemies of Islam.’
2012.07.18 India Kerala 1 2 Campus Islamists stab three Hindu students, one of whom bleeds to death.
2012.07.18 Pal. Auth. al-Shati 1 0 A 17-year-old girl is strangled by her father and brother over a moral issue.
2012.07.18 Bulgaria Burgas 7 30 A Shahid suicide bomber detonates on a bus carrying Israeli tourists, killing seven and injuring dozens more.
2012.07.17 Afghanistan Washer 9 7 Sunni radicals stage an ambush that leaves nine Afghans dead.
2012.07.17 Nigeria Jos 1 0 A 10-year-old boy dies from splinter injuries from a Boko Haram RPG attack on his home.
2012.07.16 Somalia Mogadishu 7 5 Proponents of Sharia detonate a bomb under a car that decapitates the driver and leaves six others dead.
2012.07.16 Yemen Taez 4 4 A 5-year-old girl and her father are among four people gunned down in a brutal attack.
2012.07.15 Iraq Diyala 3 10 A 3-year-old girl is among three Iraqis taken down by Mujahideen attacks.
2012.07.15 India Kerala 1 0 A Hindu activist is attacked and murdered by Muslim radicals.
2012.07.15 Pakistan Sheehan 4 1 Three children between the ages of 2 and 9 are torn apart in their home by shrapnel from a Lashkar e-Islam mortar shell.
2012.07.14 Afghanistan Aybak 23 60 A Fedayeen suicide bomber detonates at a packed wedding, sending nearly two dozen souls to Allah.
2012.07.14 Pakistan Karachi 1 0 Lashkar Jhangvi kidnap, torture and murder a 16-year-old Shiite.
2012.07.14 Pakistan Haripur 1 0 A 21-year-old mother is beaten to death by her conservative brother on suspicion of an affair.
2012.07.14 Iraq Rashidiyah 5 2 Sunni militants machine-gun five local cops at point-blank range.
2012.07.14 Pakistan Baddar 3 5 Tehreek-e-Taliban militants murder three people.
2012.07.14 Syria Muhrada 4 0 Two woman and a child are among four people torn to shreds by a Shahid suicide bomber.
2012.07.14 Thailand Pattani 1 0 A 41-year-old man is gunned down in a Muslim drive-by.
2012.07.14 Somalia Mogadishu 1 3 Militant Islamists kill a civilian with a roadside bomb.
2012.07.13 Pakistan Karachi 1 0 A Shiite father of three is murdered by Sipah-e-Sahaba gunmen.
2012.07.13 Pakistan Quetta 7 22 Islamic ‘extremists’ are suspected in a blast at a rally that leaves seven dead, including a 7-year-old girl.
2012.07.13 Iraq Baghdad 1 1 A woman is killed in her own home by Islamic ‘insurgents’.
2012.07.13 Indonesia Bogor 0 4 A Sunni mob attacks Ahmadi minorities with knives and machetes.
2012.07.13 Nigeria Maiduguri 5 6 A Boko Haram suicide bomber murders five bystanders outside a mosque.
2012.07.13 India Baghpat 0 2 Two policemen are beaten by an enraged mob of Muslims after arresting two clerics.
2012.07.13 Afghanistan Laghman 1 2 A women’s ministry official bleeds out following a Taliban bombing of her family vehicle.
2012.07.12 Thailand Yala 1 0 A 40-year-old man is shot six times in the torso by Islamic ‘separatists’.
2012.07.12 Pakistan Lahore 10 8 Tehreek-e-Taliban fundamentalists enter a barracks and shoot ten sleeping policemen to death.
2012.07.12 Pakistan Quetta 1 0 A Shiite boy is shot to death by Wahhabis.
2012.07.12 Pakistan Jaffarabad 1 0 A Hindu is shot to death by drive-by Jihadis.
2012.07.12 Iraq Mosul 5 3 Terrorists take down five Iraqis.
2012.07.11 Afghanistan Zhari 4 2 Taliban infiltrators shoot four local cops to death in their sleep.
2012.07.11 Pakistan Karachi 1 23 One person is killed when terrorists attempt to blow up a bus carrying space agency employees.
2012.07.11 Yemen Sanaa 22 24 An al-Qaeda suicide bomber targets a police academy, slaughtering about two dozen young aspirants.
2012.07.11 Philippines Tumahubong 6 27 Six rubber plantation workers are shredded by Abu Sayyaf bombers while on their way to work.
2012.07.11 Pakistan Karachi 2 0 A man and his 2-year-old son are gunned down by sectarian Jihadis.
2012.07.11 Pakistan Mian Gundi 2 0 A prayer leader is among two Shiites kidnapped and beheaded by Lashkar-e-Jhangvi Sunnis.
2012.07.11 Syria Aleppo 17 0 Seventeen Palestinians are kidnapped and murdered by Sunni terrorists.
2012.07.10 Iraq Ramadi 4 4 A shocking attack and brutal by Mujahideen on a police checkpoint leaves four officers dead.
2012.07.10 Iraq Baghdad 3 14 Sunnis bomb a bus carrying Shiites, killing three and injuring fourteen.
2012.07.10 Philippines Sumisip 0 8 An Abu Sayyaf bomb injures eight local soldiers.
2012.07.10 Pakistan Shamsabad 1 0 A teacher is shot dead on the way to work on the same day that Taliban militants blow up two schools.
2012.07.09 Pakistan Gujrat 8 4 Hardline Islamists open fire on a group of security personnel, killing eight.
2012.07.09 Afghanistan Kandahar 5 30 Two children are among five people pulled into pieces by three Shahid suicide bombers.
2012.07.09 Iraq Samarrah 2 0 Two Iraqis are shot to death by al-Qaeda.
2012.07.09 Saudi Arabia Awamiya 2 1 Sunni cops are accused of firing randomly at Shiites, killing two.
2012.07.09 Iraq Mosul 7 7 Seven Iraqis are murdered by Islamic ‘insurgents’.
2012.07.09 India Gaziabad 1 0 A Hindu man is the victim of a targeted killing by Muslims.
2012.07.08 Afghanistan Musa Qala 5 0 Sunni fundamentalists massacre five local cops with a roadside bomb.
2012.07.08 Afghanistan Arghistan 18 30 Eighteen civilians, including women and children, are torn to shreds by Taliban bombers.
2012.07.08 Nigeria Barkin-Ladi 23 1 Two politicians are among twenty-three Christians, including women and children, slaughtered by Muslims during a funeral for other victims of Islamic terror.
2012.07.08 Pakistan Kot Ghulam 1 0 A Christian laborer is pulled out of his truck and shot point-blank by a Muslim.
2012.07.07 Pakistan Karachi 2 1 Two brothers are murdered by sectarian Jihadis.
2012.07.07 Afghanistan Chora 6 1 Three children are among six civilians blown to bits by Sunni hardliners.
2012.07.07 Afghanistan Gereshk 1 1 A child is dismantled by a Taliban bomb.
2012.07.07 India Pampore 1 1 Islamic militants gun down a local security officer.
2012.07.07 Nigeria Kushen 80 300 Muslim terrorists attack twleve Christian villages and massacre eighty innocents, including fifty taking refuge in a church.
2012.07.07 Somalia Shabelle 4 3 al-Shabaab militants open fire on a passenger bus, killing at least four.
2012.07.07 Pakistan Tiyarza 4 3 Four local police officers are blown to bits by Islamic militia.
2012.07.07 Thailand Narathiwat 1 3 Muslim ‘separatists’ set off a bomb that kills a local soldier and leaves three others badly wounded.
2012.07.07 Afghanistan Farah 1 26 A Taliban rocket attack on a residence leaves one dead.
2012.07.07 Pakistan Peshawar 1 3 A policeman bleeds to death from shrapnel injuries following a Religion of Peace bombing.
2012.07.07 Pakistan Buggan 1 0 Sunni hardliners assassinate a pro-government tribal leader.
2012.07.07 Pakistan Sharifabad 1 0 A 55-year-odl Shiite is brought down by Sunni snipers.
2012.07.07 Kosovo Pristina 2 0 A middle-aged Christian couple is found shot to death in their home in what is presumed to be a targeted attack by members of the Muslim majority.
2012.07.07 Iraq Ramadi 10 38 A suicide bomber detonates in the house of a family member, killing ten relatives, most of whom were women.
2012.07.06 Pakistan Sariab 1 0 A religious scholar is assassinated by devout rivals.
2012.07.06 Egypt Giza 0 4 Fundamentalists enter a pool hall and shoot four people after telling them to stop playing and start praying.
2012.07.06 Iraq Hit 3 6 Terrorists kill three policemen outside a mosque.
2012.07.06 Iraq Anbar 5 9 An entire family of four, including two children, bleed to death following a suicide attack on their home.
2012.07.05 Iraq Mosul 5 20 A Shahid suicide bomber detonates inside a barber shop, sending at least five others to Allah.
2012.07.05 Iraq Baqubah 1 2 An al-Qaeda bomb leaves one person dead.
2012.07.05 Nigeria Maiduguri 2 0 Sharia advocates slit the throats of two people.
2012.07.04 Kenya Mandera 1 0 Somali militants shoot a 16-year-old girl several times in the chest.
2012.07.04 Afghanistan Marjeh 1 3 A woman is taken out by a Taliban roadside bomb.
2012.07.04 Pakistan Bahawalpur 1 0 A mentally-ill man is tortured, doused with petrol and burned alive by a mob angered over reports that he burned a Quran.
2012.07.04 Afghanistan Ghazni 3 0 An honor killer beheads his ex-wife and two children.
2012.07.04 Iraq Zubaidiyah 8 37 One child and two women are among eight dead when Sunnis detonate a bomb at a Shiite market.
2012.07.04 Pakistan Kuchlak 3 0 Lashkar-e-Jhangvi gunmen murder three Religion of Peace rivals.
2012.07.04 Iraq Baghdad 3 0 Terrorists assassinate three people in separate attacks.
2012.07.04 Iraq Mosul 3 1 A woman is among three Iraqis taken down by Mujahideen bombers.
2012.07.04 Nigeria Borno 2 0 Two employees at a housing complex are chased down and murdered by Boko Haram radicals.
2012.07.04 Pakistan Pasrur 2 3 A pregnant woman and her baby are shot to death by Wahhabis because they were Shia.
2012.07.04 Pakistan Jamrud 1 0 A young women’s rights activist is gunned down in a targeted attack.
2012.07.03 India Pulwama 2 0 Muslim terrorists shoot an off-duty policeman and a traffic cop to death at close range.
2012.07.03 Pakistan Bara Kamangra 1 4 Islamic militants kill one person with a remote-controlled bomb.
2012.07.03 Thailand Yala 1 0 A 49-year-old Buddhist is dismantled by Muslim bombers while on his way home.
2012.07.03 Iraq Karbalah 8 54 Eight Shiite worshippers are sent straight to Allah by Sunni bombers at a vegetable market.
2012.07.03 Iraq Diwaniya 40 75 Sunnis set off a powerful bomb near a Shiite mosque, taking down at least forty Religion of Peace rivals.
2012.07.03 Iraq Taji 3 15 Muslim bombers kill three Iraqis.
2012.07.02 Afghanistan Kandahar 7 23 A Shahid suicide bomber detonates near the entrance of a university, killing seven students and staff.
2012.07.02 Pakistan Lalu Ali 2 0 Sipah-e-Sahaba cadres capture and behead two brothers for being Shia.
2012.07.02 Egypt Suez 1 0 A 20-year-old engineering student is stabbed to death by religious police for walking with his girlfriend.
2012.07.02 Yemen Sanaa 1 0 A Yemeni is killed by a suspected al-Qaeda car bomb.
2012.07.02 Iraq Baghdad 1 8 Jihadi bombers take out a traffic cop.
2012.07.01 Iraq Beaver Ridge Canaan 3 4 Terrorists kill three people including a judge.
2012.07.01 Afghanistan Ghazni 5 11 Five women and children are ripped apart when the Taliban bomb their bus.
2012.07.01 Dagestan Khasavyurt 1 0 An off-duty cop is gunned down in a Muslim drive-by.
2012.07.01 Pakistan Faisalabad 0 1 A man is beaten and ‘severely tortured’ by a mob for ‘defaming’ prophet Muhammad with remarks.
2012.07.01 Kenya Garissa 18 66 Muslims throw grenades into two churches and then shoot fleeing Christians. Some eighteen die in the massacre, including three children..
2012.07.01 Nigeria Maiduguri 9 0 Nine Christian construction workers have their throats cut by Islamists in a ‘gruesome’ killing.
2012.07.01 Afghanistan Helmand 3 0 A Taliban disguised in police uniform murders three British soldiers.
2012.06.30 Thailand Yala 1 0 A 60-year-old man is murdered in front of his home by suspected Muslim ‘separatists’.
2012.06.30 Iraq Mosul 4 5 Four Iraqis are sent to Allah by Mujahideen bombers.
2012.06.30 Yemen Zinjibar 8 0 al-Qaeda landmines take down eight more civilians.
2012.06.30 Iraq Baaj 2 0 Terrorists gun down two civilians.
2012.06.30 Iraq Samarra 7 3 A Shahid suicide bomber take down seven Iraqis.
2012.06.30 Afghanistan Paktia 2 0 A Taliban bomb kills two people outside a bank.
2012.06.30 Iraq Abu Ghraib 1 2 A woman and child are among the casualties of a terrorist bomb attack on their home.
2012.06.30 Afghanistan Qimchok 1 0 Fundamentalists pump five rounds into an accused adulteress’s chest before a crowd cheering ‘long live Islam.’
2012.06.29 Kenya Dabaab 1 4 Islamists shoot a driver and kidnap four humanitarian workers.
2012.06.29 Iraq Baqubah 4 4 Four Iraqis are shot to death at a checkpoint by al-Qaeda.
2012.06.29 Iraq Balad 7 50 Jihadis take down seven patrons with two market bombs.
2012.06.29 Afghanistan Kamdesh 10 16 Four women are among ten innocents slain by a Shahid suicide attack.
2012.06.29 Algeria Ouargla 1 3 A suicide car bomber manages to take out one other person.
2012.06.29 Pakistan Karachi 1 0 Sipah-e-Sahaba shoot a young Shia man to death at a bus stop.
2012.06.29 Egypt El Sharqiya 2 0 Two Christians are reported murdered by Muslim Brotherhood activists.
2012.06.29 Thailand Pattani 2 0 Two village guards are machine-gunned by Muslim terrorists.
2012.06.28 Mali Gao 17 41 The Movement for Oneness and Jihad assaults a small town, killing at least seventeen defenders.
2012.06.28 Iraq Taji 4 20 Twin sectarian car-bombings leave four Iraqis dead.
2012.06.28 Pakistan Quetta 18 30 A Fedayeen attack on a bus carrying Shia pilgrims leaves at least eighteen dead.
2012.06.28 Iraq Baghdad 8 30 Islamic bombers successfully kill eight patrons at a marketplace.
2012.06.28 Iraq Fallujah 2 4 A Holy Warrior sends to security guards to Allah.
2012.06.28 Pakistan Bara 8 3 Taliban militants murder eight local soldiers with a remote-controlled bomb.
2012.06.28 Iraq Samarrah 2 0 Two Iraqis are gunned down at close range by al-Qaeda.
2012.06.28 Pakistan Ziauddin 2 0 Islamists dismember two guards and blow up a primary school.
2012.06.28 Somalia Baidoa 3 3 At least three people are killed during an al-Shabaab ambush.
2012.06.28 Nigeria Gulak 5 3 Five policemen are ambushed and killed by Boko Haram.
2012.06.28 Dagestan Karamakhi 2 0 Islamists shoot an anti-extremist imam and one other to death in his mosque.
2012.06.28 Syria Homs 6 0 A university professor is shot to death in her home along with five family members, including three children.
2012.06.28 Iraq Baqubah 6 51 Sectarian Jihadis set off a bomb near shops and cafes frequented by Shiites. At least six are killed.
2012.06.27 Pakistan Quetta 8 35 At least eight are killed when Muslim terrorists bomb a commuter train.
2012.06.27 Iraq al-Wahda 3 0 Two children are among three people slain when terrorists bomb a house through the air conditioning system.
2012.06.27 Pakistan Dera Ismail Khan 1 0 A woman is murdered by her family for marrying by choice.
2012.06.27 Afghanistan Musa Qala 4 0 Four policemen investigating an earlier bombing are sent to Allah by Taliban bombers.
2012.06.27 Syria Damascus 7 11 Seven employees at a television station are butchered by Sunni terrorists.
2012.06.27 Iraq Madain 8 10 A vicious double bomb attack kills eight Iraqis.
2012.06.27 Iraq Baghdad 3 2 ‘Insurgents’ blow up a family home, killing three women.
2012.06.27 Pakistan Bazidkhel 4 0 Four people are kidnapped and brutally executed by Islamic militants.
2012.06.27 Yemen Jaar 39 24 An additional thirty-nine people are reported dead from al-Qaeda landmines.
2012.06.27 Afghanistan Ghoryan 6 2 Six Afghan police are killed in an ambush and roadside bombing.
2012.06.26 Thailand Yala 1 14 A separate shooting and bombing by militant Muslims leaves one dead and fourteen injured.
2012.06.26 Nigeria Kano 1 0 Islamic extremists shoot a prison guard to death.
2012.06.26 Dagestan Makhachkala 1 0 A Islamist drive-by leaves one cop dead.
2012.06.26 Iraq Ramadi 1 1 Terrorists kill a doctor and seriously injure his daughter.
2012.06.25 Iraq Baqubah 2 3 Two people lose their lives to a terrorist bomb.
2012.06.25 Thailand Pattani 3 0 A 17-year-old is among three innocent victims pulled out of a car and machine-gunned in cold blood by Islamic ‘separatists’.
2012.06.25 Dagestan Shauri 1 0 A local cop is shot in the head by Muslim ‘separatists’.
2012.06.25 Iraq Hillah 9 32 ‘Insurgents’ set off a bomb near a soccer field, killing nine young Shiites..
2012.06.25 Pakistan Karachi 1 0 Sipah-Sahaba snipers pick off a Shiite with a shot to the head.
2012.06.24 Kenya Mombasa 3 3 At least one person is killed when religious extremists throw a hand-grenade into a bar showing a soccer game.
2012.06.24 Pakistan Lahore 1 0 A 40-year-old Shiite is murdered by members of Lashkar-e-Jhangvi.
2012.06.24 Pakistan Shareefabad 1 0 Sipah-e-Sahab cadres shoot a 46-year-old Shiite to death.
2012.06.24 Egypt Alexandria 1 0 A pregnant woman is beaten to death by her husband for not voting Muslim Brotherhood.
2012.06.24 Pakistan Upper Dir 13 5 Muslim hardliners murder six border guards. Seven others are captured and beheaded.
2012.06.24 Pakistan Quetta 4 0 Islamists are suspected of shooting four local police officers in a drive-by attack.
2012.06.24 Nigeria Bauchi 0 9 A 3-month-old baby is among the casualties of a Boko Haram blast at a beer garden.
2012.06.24 Pakistan Karachi 2 0 Two sisters are poisoned by their brothers on suspicion of sexual activity.
2012.06.24 Afghanistan Jalalabad 2 2 Fundamentalists bomb a market selling music, killing two participants.
2012.06.23 Yemen Zinjibar 35 12 Thirty-five people are killed in a series of al-Qaeda landmine blasts.
2012.06.23 Thailand Yala 1 0 A 42-year-old is shot off of his motorcycle by Jihadi gunmen.
2012.06.23 Pakistan Quetta 8 1 Islamic militants are suspected in the target killing of eight men at a laundry mat.
2012.06.22 Iraq Baghdad 14 106 ‘Insurgents’ set off a nail bomb at a crowded market, killing at least a dozen innocents and leaving over a hundred more injured.
2012.06.22 Iraq Baghdad 3 0 Three young police officers are machine-gunned at point-blank range by Islamic terrorists.
2012.06.22 Pakistan Liaqatabad 1 0 A Shiite walking near a market is exterminated by Sunni gunmen.
2012.06.22 Pakistan Karachi 2 0 Two seminary teachers are assassinated by Religion of Peace rivals.
2012.06.22 Pakistan Laddah 7 0 Fundamentalists capture and behead seven local soldiers.
2012.06.22 Afghanistan Noghi 2 0 A father and son are kidnapped by Taliban in uniforms and executed in captivity.
2012.06.22 Pakistan Khra Shah 2 2 Terrorists kill two people with a landmine
2012.06.22 France Rennes 1 0 A 16-year-old is violently killed by a Muslim classmate in what is regarded as a ‘racist’ attack. Other Muslims have shown solidarity with the killer.
2012.06.22 Iraq Samarrah 1 10 A Sunni suicide bomber takes out a Shiite pilgrim.
2012.06.21 Syria Damascus 1 1 A Shiite cleric is gunned down by sectarian rivals.
2012.06.21 Pakistan Quetta 2 17 Religion of Peace rivals bomb a mosque, killing two worshippers.
2012.06.21 Pakistan Pakhtunkhwa 3 21 Two very young children are among the dead when Islamists bomb a Sufi shrine.
2012.06.21 Afghanistan Qargha Lake 20 50 At least twenty people are massacred by fundamentalists at a hotel serving alcohol.
2012.06.21 Pakistan Karachi 1 0 A spiritualist is shot to death in a suspected targeted attack over his faith.
2012.06.20 Iraq Kirkuk 3 9 A powerful ‘insurgent’ bomb leaves at least three Iraqis dead.
2012.06.20 Pakistan Karachi 1 0 A Shiite prayer leader is shot to death by Sunni rivals.
2012.06.20 Afghanistan Logar 8 4 Four children and two women are among eight innocents torn apart by a Religion of Peace bomb.
2012.06.20 Afghanistan Khost 21 32 Mostly civilians are victimized by a Fedayeen suicide blast that leaves at least twenty-one dead.

 

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